Distant Distortion of Galaxies
Astronomers do not like what is seen at extreme distances.
In other words, astronomers do not like the appearances of objects with extreme red shifts or are in that region.
I suspect these red shifts and the claimed distortion are related to the Electric Universe.
If the distances are derived from a wrong interpretation of red shifts then these clusters are not really that far away.
All the most distance galaxy groups are claimed to be distorted and so astronomers claim the galaxy group acts as a gravitational lens to distort the appearance of many objects within the group. These groups are usually described as immersed in plasma or very hot gas.
There are excepts to support the conclusion so this might be too long.
Here are notable examples:
Abell 426 distance =240 Mly
'[Abell 426] is one of the most massive objects in the known universe, containing thousands of galaxies immersed in a vast cloud of multimillion-degree gas.'
Abell 133 galaxy cluster Distance =763 Mly
Abell 133 observations:
Filaments of the cosmic web have long been associated with the threadlike structures seen in galaxy redshift surveys. However, despite their baryon content being dominated by hot gas, these filaments have been an elusive target for X-ray observations. Recently, detections of filaments in very deep (2.4 Msec) observations with Chandra were reported around Abell 133 (z=0.0559). To verify these claims, we conducted a multi-object spectrographic campaign on the Baade 6.5m telescope around Abell 133; this resulted in a catalog of ~3000 new redshift measurements, of which 254 are of galaxies near the cluster. We investigate the kinematic state of Abell 133 and identify the physical locations of filamentary structure in the galaxy distribution. Contrary to previous studies, we see no evidence that Abell 133 is dynamically disturbed; we reject the hypothesis that there is a kinematically distinct subgroup (p=0.28) and find no velocity offset between the central galaxy and the cluster (Zscore=0.041+0.111-0.106). The spatial distribution of galaxies traces the X-ray filaments, as confirmed by angular cross correlation with a significance of ~5s. A similar agreement is found in the angular density distribution, where two X-ray structures have corresponding galaxy enhancements. We also identify filaments in the large-scale structure of galaxies; these filaments approach the cluster from the direction the X-ray structures are seen. While more members between R200 and 2×R200 are required to clarify which large scale filaments connect to the X-ray gas, we argue that this is compelling evidence that the X-ray emission is indeed associated with cosmic filaments.
Abell 3266 Distance =809 Mly
Abell 3266 is 'one of the largest in the southern sky, and one of the largest mass concentrations in the nearby universe.
The Department of Physics at the University of Maryland discovered that a large mass of gas is hurtling through the cluster at a speed of 750 km/s (466 mph). The mass is billions of solar masses, approximately 3 million light-years in diameter and is the largest of its kind discovered as of June 2006.
Abell 1413 Distance =1,934 Mly
Abell 1413 holds about 300 galaxies together with its strong gravity. Due to the strong interactions in the cluster, the material is heated up to 100 million degrees. Because of this intense heat, strong X-ray radiation is emitted from the cluster. Scientists using the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope observed Abell 1413 and built a sample of over 250 galaxies.
Abell 2218 Distance =2,345 Mly
Acting as a powerful lens, [Abell 2218] magnifies and distorts all galaxies lying behind the cluster core into long arcs. The lensed galaxies are all stretched along the cluster's center and some of them are multiply imaged. Those multiple images usually appear as a pair of images with a third — generally fainter — counter image, as is the case for the very distant object. The lensed galaxies are particularly numerous, as we are looking in between two mass clumps, in a saddle region where the magnification is quite large.
Abell 1689 Distance =2,459 Mly
Abell 1689 hosts the largest population of globular clusters ever found. While our galaxy, the Milky Way, is only home to around 150 of these clumps of stars, Hubble has spied some 10 000 globular clusters within Abell 1689. From this, the astronomers estimate that this galaxy cluster could possibly contain over 160 000 globulars overall – an unprecedented number.
This is not the first time that this trusty magnifying glass has helped astronomer detectives try to solve clues about the Universe. In 2010, astronomers were able to investigate the elusive phenomena of dark matter and dark energy by mapping the composition of Abell 1689 (opo1037a, heic1014). Its powers as a zoom lens also enabled Hubble to identify a galaxy dubbed A1689-zD1 in 2008, one of the youngest and brightest galaxies ever seen at the time (heic0805).
This image is peppered with glowing golden clumps, bright stars, and distant, ethereal spiral galaxies. Material from some of these galaxies is being stripped away, giving the impression that the galaxy is dripping into the surrounding space. Also visible are a number of electric blue streaks, circling and arcing around the fuzzy galaxies in the centre.
These streaks are the tell-tale signs of a cosmic phenomenon known as gravitational lensing. Abell 1689 is so massive that it actually bends and warps the space around it, affecting how light from objects behind the cluster travels through space. These streaks are actually the distorted forms of galaxies that lie behind Abell 1689.
Abell 222 galaxy cluster Distance =2,400 Mly
Abell 223 galaxy cluster Distance =2,400 Mly - a filament connects 222 to 223
A giant string of invisible dark matter has been discovered across the universe between a pair of galaxy clusters.
The filament forms a bridge between two huge clusters called Abell 222 and Abell 223, which lie 2.7 billion light-years away. The universe is thought to be filled with such strings of dark matter, a mysterious substance that cannot be seen, only sensed through its gravitational pull.
Scientists have made previous attempts to find dark matter filaments, which are predicted by theories that suggest galaxy clusters form at the intersections of filaments. Dark matter is thought to make up 83 percent of all matter in the universe.
"This is the first time [a dark matter filament] has been convincingly detected from its gravitational lensing effect," said astronomer Jörg Dietrich of the University Observatory in Munich. "It's a resounding confirmation of the standard theory of structure formation of the universe. And it's a confirmation people didn't think was possible at this point."
Many astronomers thought detecting filaments would have to wait until telescopes became significantly more advanced, but Dietrich and his colleagues benefited from the rare spatial geometry of this cluster, which allowed them to detect signs of what's called weak gravitational lensing.
Dark matter is invoked when electromagnetic effects are ignored and no explanation can be found with gravity alone.
Abell 2261 Distance =2,956 Mly
A2261-BCG (short for Abell 2261 Brightest Cluster Galaxy) is a huge elliptical galaxy in the cluster Abell 2261. One of the largest galaxies known, A2261-BCG is estimated to have a diameter of a million light-years, some 10 times larger than the Milky Way. It is the brightest and the most massive galaxy in the cluster, and has the largest galactic core ever observed, spanning more than 10,000 light-years.
The cD elliptical galaxy, located at least 3 billion light-years from Earth, is also well known as a radio source. Its core is highly populated by a dense number of old stars, but is mysteriously diffuse, giving it a large core.
A2261-BCG has 10 trillion stars or 10^13
Abell 2390 Distance =2,997 Mly
Abell 2390 is well known because of its gravitational arcs captured by the Hubble Space Telescope.'
Abell 2667 at distance = 3,200 Mly has the Comet Galaxy
The Comet Galaxy, a spiral galaxy located 3.2 billion light-years from Earth, in the galaxy cluster Abell 2667. This galaxy has slightly more mass than our Milky Way.
This unique spiral galaxy, which is situated 3.2 billion light-years from the Earth, has an extended stream of bright blue knots and diffuse wisps of young stars. It rushes at 3.5 million km/h through the cluster Abell 2667 and therefore, like a comet, shows a tail, with a length of 600,000 light-years.
The Comet Galaxy is currently being ripped to pieces, moving through a cluster at speeds of greater than 2 million mph. As the galaxy speeds through, its gas and stars are being stripped away by the tidal forces exerted by the cluster - just as the tidal forces exerted by the Moon and Sun push and pull the Earth's oceans. Also contributing to this destructive process is the pressure of the cluster's hot gas plasma reaching temperatures as high as 100 million degrees. Scientists estimate that the total duration of the transformation process is close to one billion years. What is seen now in the Hubble's image is roughly 200 million years into the process. Even though the Comet Galaxy's mass is slightly greater than the Milky Way, it will lose all its gas and dust, and so not be able to generate stars later in life. It will become a gas-poor galaxy with an old population of red stars.
During the ram pressure stripping process, the charged particles strip and push away the infalling galaxy's gas, just as the solar wind of charged particles pushes ionized gas away from a comet to create a gas tail. For this reason the scientists have nicknamed the stretched spiral the "comet galaxy."
It is ironic the distorted galaxy is given the term 'comet' as a comet's halo is an electrical effect.
Abell 1835 Distance =3,337 Mly
Abell 1835 IR1916 was a candidate for being the most distant galaxy ever observed, although that claim has not been verified by additional observations.
The initial observer's analysis of J-band observations indicated that Abell 1835 IR1916 has a redshift factor of z~10.0, meaning that it appears to us as it was about 13.2 billion years ago, only 470 million years after the Big Bang and very close to the first burst of star formation in the universe. This redshift also implies a comoving distance from the earth of about 13.2 billion light years. Its visibility at such a great distance was credited to gravitational lensing by the galaxy cluster Abell 1835 between it and us.
Further analysis of the data that led to the first announcement has cast doubt on the claim that it is a distant object, and follow-up observations in the H-band using the Gemini North Telescope and observations from the orbiting Spitzer Space Telescope were not able to detect it at all, the latter regarding it to be an artefact.
Abell 2744 Distance =3,982 Mly
Abell 2744, nicknamed Pandora's Cluster, is a giant galaxy cluster resulting from the simultaneous pile-up of at least four separate, smaller galaxy clusters that took place over a span of 350 million years. The galaxies in the cluster make up less than five percent of its mass. The gas (around 20 percent) is so hot that it shines only in X-rays. Dark matter makes up around 75 percent of the cluster's mass.
This cluster also shows a radio halo along with several other Abell clusters. It has a strong central halo, along with an extended tail, which could either be relic radiation, or an extension of the central halo.
Abell 370 galaxy cluster Distance =4,000 Mly
Abell 370 is a galaxy cluster located approximately 4 billion light-years away from the Earth (at redshift z = 0.375), Its core is made up of several hundred galaxies. It was catalogued by George Abell, and is the most distant of the clusters he catalogued.
Abell 370 appears to include several arcs of light, including the largest ever discovered with 30" long. These arcs or deformations are mirages caused by gravitational lensing of massive and dark objects located between the observer and the distant galaxies. This cluster shows an apparent magnitude of +22.
In 2002, astronomers used this lensing effect to discover a galaxy, HCM-6A, 12.8 billion light years away from Earth. At the time it was the furthest known galaxy.
In 2009, study in the field of Abell 370 revealed a grouping of background galaxies lensed and distorted by the cluster into an arc with the appearance of a dragon, hence nicknamed The Dragon by NASA scientists. Its head is composed of a spiral galaxy, with another image of the spiral composing the tail. Several other images form the body of the dragon, all overlapping. These galaxies all lie approximately 5 billion light years away.
I can never find the content of the most distant cluster identifying the number of quasars or galaxies. That detail helps understand how the distances are calculated.
Quasars require electrical energy to accelerate hydrogen atoms to relativistic velocities. These distant galaxy groups have in both their descriptions and pictures X-ray emissions from the intergalactic medium.
I assume this active environment helps quasars achieve their ion acceleration.
The fictitious gravitational lens is the quite inadequate explanation for the interesting diversity observed in these distant clusters.
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