Code for Early Bright Hot
There is a code to follow when reading astronomy news stories. This recent story is an example.
'early' means it has an extreme red shift which is assumed to have an extreme velocity and so then it is also at an extreme distance. Billions of light years away means that many years ago.
These are incorrect assumptions. Red shifts from galaxies are different than from quasars. A galaxy red shift is proportional to the intergalactic hydrogen atoms in the light path so intervening clouds anywhere in the path increase the shift. Quasar red shifts come from hydrogen ions zooming toward the core and indicate nothing about the quasar distance or velocity.
'brighter' means the red shift indicates an extreme (wrong) distance for the observed brightness of this object but the conclusion is the brightness is wrong.
'hot' means there are X-rays; they are assumed to come from an extremely hot gas. This is wrong because X-rays are part of synchrotron radiation implying there are electric and magnetic fields in action. The assumption for 'hot' is this hot gas behaves like a blackbody so its high temperature results in blackbody radiation in the X-ray band.
Alternately a proposed accretion disk is assumed to have that blackbody temperature for X-rays.
I am glad to see optimism in this particular story:
Perhaps one day, astronomers will have a true answer.'
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