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  X-Ray Binary Star Explanation

X-Ray Binary stars cannot be as described if the claimed black hole is dropped.
Here is a challenge to EUT: describe the XB in EUT terminology.

Quotes from Wikipedia:

X-ray binaries are a class of binary stars that are luminous in X-rays. The X-rays are produced by matter falling from one component, called the donor (usually a relatively normal star), to the other component, called the accretor, which is very compact: a neutron star or black hole. The infalling matter releases gravitational potential energy, up to several tenths of its rest mass, as X-rays.

As far as I know, there is no known mechanism in physics where 'gravitational potential energy, [is released] as X-rays.'

'gravitational potential energy' is released as kinetic energy when the object being held against gravity is physically released so it can fall.

Synchrotron radiation is the usual source for X-rays.
SS 433 is one of the most exotic star systems observed. It is an eclipsing X-ray binary system, with the primary most likely a black hole, or possibly a neutron star. The spectrum of the secondary companion star suggests that it is a late A-type star. SS 433 is the first discovered microquasar. It was the 433rd entry in their 1977 catalog of stars with strong emission lines.

The compact central object is consuming the companion star which rapidly loses mass into an accretion disc formed around the central object. The accretion disc is subject to extreme heating as it spirals into the primary and this heating causes the accretion disc to give off intense X-rays and opposing jets of hot hydrogen along the axis of rotation, above and below the plane of the accretion disc. The material in the jets travels at 26% of the speed of light. The companion star presumably had lower mass than the original primary object and was therefore longer lived. Estimates for its mass range from 3 to 30 solar masses. The primary and secondary orbit each other at a very close distance in stellar terms, with an orbital period of 13.1 days.

The description has terminology issues.

'Hot gas spirals into the primary'

This spiraling plasma sounds like synchrotron radiation that can extend to X-ray wavelengths.

'Opposing jets of hot hydrogen along the axis' sounds like the Thornhill description of the M87 plasmoid.

From an online pdf:

narrow lines from ionized material located in the X-ray binary X-ray spectroscopy of LMXBs, L. Boirin X-ray spectroscopy workshop, MSSL, March 2009

This document includes a number of spectrum graphs.

The spectrum is characterized as (excerpts):

continuum emission
modified by absorption
from elements in the ISM and possibly in the system

Often an emission line near 6.4 keV
Fe K fluorescence
radiative stabilization following inner-shell photoionization by hard X-ray continuum in a
relatively cool and dense medium
“X-ray reflection”
often broad
Compton scattering, range of ionization states

broad and asymmetric (red wing) in some BH binaries
relativistically broadened disk-line

imprints from the ISM detected in great detail
absorption lines from the hot component of the ISM X-ray absorption fine structures

HEG and MEG spectra from a bright X-ray binary
showing narrow and broad absorption peaks in the Si K band
accounted for by X-ray absorption fine structures
due to Si in the form of silicates (thick line model)
rather than a simple absorption edge due to atomic Si
Constrain the composition of the ISM

vimprints from the ISM detected in great detail
absorption lines from the hot component of the ISM
X-ray absorption fine structures broad Fe emission lines still common
relativistic red wings now reported in NS binaries

Disk winds

the absorption lines appear:
- not shifted (or not in a systematic way) in some cases (e.g. 4U 1916-05)
- blue-shifted by ∼ 400 km/s
in some BH binaries and, e.g., the NS binary GX 13+1
indicating that the ionized material is outflowing mass outflow rate < mass accretion rate
This component certainly plays an important role in the overall properties of the system and in its evolution.

Summary <a heading in the document>

A highly ionized atmosphere or wind is present above the accretion disk in LMXBs.
It is detected as a warm emitter and/or absorber in many LMXBs seen relatively close to edge-on.
Photoionization is the dominant ionization mechanism.

The bulge where the accretion stream impacts the disk is seen as a less strongly ionized absorber in dippers.
Its irradiated surface is seen as a recombining emitting region in the ADC source 2A 1822-371.

An ionized absorber with log 4 mainly produces absorption lines at 6.7–7 keV
An ionized absorber with log 3 also produces many lines and edges near 1 keV, that may appear as a broad
depression (or a broad excess elsewhere) in low-resolution or low-statistics spectra.
Ionized absorption should be properly accounted for to correctly model the continuum emission, any broad Fe emission line and any soft excess in LMXBs.

An interpretation:

All references to 'hot' or 'ionized' are to plasma.
'Photoionization' is the photo electric effect, where an electron is ejected (atom is ionized) due to the absorption of a high energy wavelength (photon)

'continuum emission' is from the plasmoid at the core generating continuous spectrum synchrotron radiation.
ISM is the interstellar medium surrounding this plasmoid. There are absorption and emission lines from atoms in this region.

'Fe K fluorescence' is that iron K shell emission line.
The XB has a different set of emission lines than found in LINER galaxies (low-ionization nuclear emission-line region).

Iron and Silicon are mentioned for being in the ISM.

Some quasars also have several 'metallic' elements with absorption lines, probably a similar cloud of atoms around the core like this.

There are ISM absorption lines both red and blue shifted indicating these loose atoms are rotating around the plasmoid.

A 'solid' accretion disk cannot generate what is ascribed to it because X-rays from thermal radiation are unlikely. and that thermal spectrum is not observed here, unless I am mistaken.

The LMXB has a complex spectrum but I expect EUT can explain much of it without a black hole (or a neutron star) by starting with the X-ray source as a plasmoid like in M87 and similarities to quasars and LINERs.

The LMXB spectrum is more complex than the M87 core.

The LMXB is often associated with opposing jets along the axis; M87 also has them.

 'the massive star dominates the emission of optical light' and is apparently a 'late A-type star' so that suggests this star has a known mass.

Wikipedia has information on:
X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is a specific structure observed in X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). By analyzing the XAFS, information can be acquired on the local structure and on the unoccupied local electronic states.

XAFS is new to me.

1) With that mass of the secondary and the observed orbit parameters, the mass for the plasmoid could be calculated. I did not find a document to describe whether the binary had a circular or elliptical orbit.

I expect the 'low-mass' XB results in a lower number of solar masses for the primary than another XB.  I do not know the range of mass for a plasmoid (and its neighborhood), as indicated when it is in a binary.

2) Can the plasmoid be 3 to 30 solar masses?

3) what are 'relativistic red wings'?
I just searched for that term and only this document has that term.

4) what is a 'broadened disk-line'?
I just searched for that term and only this document has that term.

5) the reference to winds in the atmosphere of the accretion disk is suspicious; I suspect this is the red or blue shifted absorption lines.

Is there anyone in EUT willing to further explain the LMXB in EUT terminology?

Some facets are clear; others are not.

With more time perhaps a complete EUT explanation for an XB could be offered here, but some details are unclear.

Excerpts above do not include all of the document.

Anyone in EUT willing to further explain the LMXB in EUT terminology?


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