Correct Rules for Using Absorption and Emission Lines
Most of the time these blue shifts and red shifts are used wrong.
Absorption lines and emission lines are from intervening atoms and are never certain to be physically part of the object in their line of sight so:
a) Absorption lines are only an indicator that element is in the line of sight to that object; no other conclusions are valid.
Even if some number of atoms appear connected there is no way to be certain in each case. The correct decision is avoid a possible mistake; otherwise the mistake might be found only after conclusions were drawn on what became bad data much later.
b) the quasar hydrogen emission line red shift is:
1) a relative indicator of the AGN's energy capacity. The quasar red shift will decrement over time as its energy is expended with its periodic jets of plasma, neutrons, and hydrogen atoms. Halton Arp observed this quantized behavior in a quasar many years ago.
2) unrelated to any motion of the quasar in the line of sight.
c) other emission lines are an indicator that element is moving in the line of sight to that object; no other conclusions are valid.
The hydrogen emission line is currently used to monitor the motion of the hydrogen gas clouds in a spiral galaxy arms; the emission line is used for only the atom, never for the galaxy in the line of sight with the atom. That is correct.
Emission lines for other elements must treated the same as only data about the atom.
Here is a demonstration of the problem of misusing red shifts by showing actual values from Wikipedia.
RV = relative velocity
DC = distance using Cepheids
DS = distance using line shift
4 galaxies in the Local Group:
LMC RV = 158 km/s DS= 4.3 Mly, DC = 0.16 Mly
SMC RV = 275 km/s DS= 3.93 Mly, DC = 200 kly or 0.02 Mly
M31 RV = −301 km/s DS= negative, DC = 2.54 Mly
M33 RV= -179 km/s DS= negative, DC = 2.72 Mly
From Wikipedia list of large red shifts:
First 2 are galaxies, 3rd is quasar
GN-z11 RV= z=11.09, DS=155,018 Mly or 155 Bly, DC=n/a
EGSY8p7 RV= z=8.68, DS=121,331 Mly or 121 Bly, DC=n/a
ULAS J1120+0641 RV=z=7.085, DS=99,036 Mly or 99 Bly, DC=n/a
z=7.085 = 2,125,500 km/s
Such ridiculous velocities and distances are accepted and the result of that mistake is the expanding universe.
A red shift showing a distance of 121 Bly or a distance comparison of 0.16 Mly vs 4.3 Mly are accepted. One would think someone concerned with validity would question the assumptions for these conclusions.
The universe is not expanding and there is no dark energy which is the feeble explanation for the mistakes shown above.
For better distance measurements, a metric in the object must be used not intervening atoms.
Cepheid variable stars have a limited range and have a significant margin of error.
Supernova type IA are used if one is lucky to observe one and they also have a margin of error.
Unfortunately its calculation is checked against the galaxy's red shift so the result of that mistake is claimed superbright supernovae are observed when using a wrong distance for the check.
Cosmology is hampered by limited tools when avoiding the current use of atoms.
One current effort in progress is the Tip of Red Giant Branch (TRGB) but such methods require resolution to individual stars which is impossible over long distances.
TRGB uses Cepheids in the same galaxy to cross check.
Astronomers are working on an alternate metric but in the meantime we have bad data and dark energy.
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