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Northeastern USA Temperature Modifications

The other web pages in this set (for the Religion of CAGW) involve a presentation of the temperatures in the ‘raw’ data set at GISS. There are three data sets at GISS: for raw data (with some corrections), combined data (after combining multiple records for the same location) and homogenized data (after a ‘cleaning’ adjustment). This web page shows the calculated difference between the raw values and the homogenized values, presented as the annual average (averaging the difference for all the months in each year having a temperature record). These charts use Jan-Dec for the months in each year. Since GISS performs seasonal averaging, with the seasons beginning in December not January, the charts sometimes show a slight change in the last year before a step change; this slight difference is due to the GISS adjustment for the next step starting in December.


There are three possible trends to observe:

If the line of the temperature differences is flat on zero then that means there were no adjustments by GISS between the raw temperatures and the homogenized temperatures.

If the trend of the line is from the upper left (positive) toward zero at the right then that means there must have been warming due to the location of the temperature measurement instrument(s), presumably due to the urban heat island effect (human activities around the instruments warmed the device(s) more than had the device(s) been located away from those activities) and so the oldest temperatures are warmed to compensate for that effect. This adjustment is clear recognition that the temperature record is corrupted (warmed) by the temperature recording methods.

If the trend of the line is from the lower left (negative) toward zero (or positive) at the right then the oldest temperatures were made cooler making any temperature trend in the homogenized data set at this location warmer than the raw temperatures indicated. This adjustment either increases any warming present or results in a warming trend where none was present.

Here are the differences between the annual average temperatures in the raw and homogenized GISS data sets for these states.
The following graphs are for the states in the Northeast region, by their names in alphabetical order like this:

CT,DE,ME,MD,MA,NH,NJ,NY,PA,RI,VT,VA,WV


After each graph is a short summary of the analysis for its locations. The left column of numbers has the temperature adjustments and the right column of numbers are the 10-year averages (of anomalies)  for the year at the left. The First Adj is the first adjustment in the record. The First Ave is the first 10-year average in the record. A Peak Ave is a peak (high or low) in the anomaly average while Mid Adj is a middle peak (high or low) in the annual temperature adjustment (a Mid Adj is somewhat uncommon since the typical adjustment starts either high or low and approaches zero at the end). When the adjustments are positive, the oldest raw temperatures have been increased which would be a compensation for when the most recent temperatures are too warm due to the urban heat island effect. When the adjustments are negative, the oldest raw temperatures have been decreased which would make any overall warming trend more severe or could make an overall flat or cooling trend into a warming trend. Take note of the sign of the adjustments and the temperature swings in the first half of the 20th Century.
 


CT9difS

Connecticut
CT/LI Bridgehampton
1930  First Adj  -0.5 
1939  First Ave  -0.4  10-yr Ave  -0.4
1943  Peak Ave   -0.4  10-yr Ave  -0.6
1958  Peak Ave   -0.2  10-yr Ave  +0.2
1967  Peak Ave   -0.1  10-yr Ave  -0.6
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.7

CT Storrs
1895  First Adj  -0.6 
1904  First Ave  -0.6  10-yr Ave  -0.9
1926  Peak Ave   -0.5  10-yr Ave  -0.8
1954  Peak Ave   -0.3  10-yr Ave  +0.3
1967  Peak Ave   -0.2  10-yr Ave  -0.1
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.8

DE9difS

Delaware
DE Greenwood
1895  First Adj   0.0 
1904  First Ave   0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.4
1954  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.2
1969  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.7
2009  Last Adj    0.0  10-yr Ave  +1.4

DE Wilmington
1895  First Adj  -0.1 
1904  First Ave  -0.1  10-yr Ave  -0.6
1957  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.4
1970  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.3
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.3


ME9difS

Maine
ME Gardiner
1895  First Adj  -1.0 
1904  First Ave  _0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.5
1958  Peak Ave   +0.4  10-yr Ave  +0.6
1972  Peak Ave   +0.3  10-yr Ave  -0.1
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.4

ME Portland
1895  First Adj  -1.0 
1904  First Ave  -0.8  10-yr Ave  -0.9
1957  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.7
1972  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.2
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.9


MD9difS

Maryland
MD Patuxent
1892  First Adj   0.0 
1901  First Ave   0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.2
1910  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.8
1955  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.8
1990  Last Adj    0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.2

MD Royal Oak
1895  First Adj   0.0 
1904  First Ave   0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.7
1957  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.6
1969  Last Adj    0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.2
2009  Last Adj    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.8


MA9difS

Massachusetts
MA Amherst
1895  First Adj  -0.7 
1904  First Ave  -0.7  10-yr Ave  -1.0
1957  Peak Ave   -0.3  10-yr Ave  +0.8
1967  Peak Ave   -0.3  10-yr Ave  -0.6
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.8

MA Lawrence
1895  First Adj  -0.9 
1904  First Ave  -0.7  10-yr Ave  -0.9
1955  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.7
1972  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.1
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +1.0


NH9difS

New Hampshire
NH Concord
1881  First Adj  +1.3 
1890  First Ave  +1.2  10-yr Ave  +0.2
1908  Peak Ave   +1.0  10-yr Ave  -0.5
1939  Peak Ave   +0.7  10-yr Ave  +0.5
1978  Peak Ave   +0.3  10-yr Ave  -0.7
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.3

NH Durham
1895  First Adj  +0.6 
1904  First Ave  +0.6  10-yr Ave  -0.1
1915  Peak Ave   +0.4  10-yr Ave  +0.1
1948  Peak Ave   +0.1  10-yr Ave  -0.4
1955  Peak Ave   +0.1  10-yr Ave  +0.2
1971  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.4
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.4


NJ9difS

New Jersey
NJ Moorestown
1895  First Adj  -0.2 
1904  First Ave  -0.2  10-yr Ave  -0.3
1910  Peak Ave   -0.1  10-yr Ave  -0.7
1957  Peak Ave   -0.1  10-yr Ave  +0.3
1969  Peak Ave   -0.1  10-yr Ave  -0.4
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.7

NJ New Brunswick
1895  First Adj  +0.1 
1904  First Ave  -0.4  10-yr Ave  -0.2
1912  Peak Ave   -0.7  10-yr Ave  -0.8
1957  Peak Ave   -0.4  10-yr Ave  +0.4
1971  Peak Ave   -0.3  10-yr Ave  -0.3
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +1.0


NY9difS

New York
NY Albany
1895  First Adj  -0.5 
1904  First Ave  -0.5  10-yr Ave  -0.4
1955  Peak Ave   -0.4  10-yr Ave  +0.5
1983  Peak Ave   -0.3  10-yr Ave  -0.2
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.9

NY Mohonk Lake
1895  First Adj   0.0 
1904  First Ave   0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.6
1955  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.5
1972  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.3
2009  Last Adj    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.9


PA9difS

Pennsylvania
PA State College
1895  First Adj  +0.3 
1904  First Ave  +0.2  10-yr Ave  +0.1
1910  Peak Ave   +0.2  10-yr Ave  -0.4
1939  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.6
1997  Peak Ave   -0.5  10-yr Ave  -0.6
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.3

PA Union Town
1895  First Adj  -1.2 
1904  First Ave  -0.4  10-yr Ave  -0.7
1955  Peak Ave   -0.2  10-yr Ave  +0.5
1969  Peak Ave   -0.1  10-yr Ave  -0.5
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.7

PA Williamsport
1895  First Adj  +0.5 
1904  First Ave  +0.5  10-yr Ave  _0.0
1910  Peak Ave   +0.5  10-yr Ave  -0.3
1955  Peak Ave   +0.3  10-yr Ave  +0.3
1969  Peak Ave   +0.2  10-yr Ave  -0.5
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.5


RI9difS

Rhode Island
RI Kingston
1895  First Adj  -0.8 
1904  First Ave  -0.7  10-yr Ave  -0.9
1957  Peak Ave   -0.3  10-yr Ave  +0.5
1969  Peak Ave   -0.3  10-yr Ave  -0.3
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.9

RI Providence
1895  First Adj  -1.2 
1904  First Ave  -1.0  10-yr Ave  -1.1
1953  Peak Ave   -0.2  10-yr Ave  +0.6
1970  Peak Ave   -0.1  10-yr Ave  -0.2
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +1.0


VT9difS

Vermont
VT Burlington
1895  First Adj  +0.1 
1904  First Ave  +0.4  10-yr Ave  -0.3
1924  Mid Adj    +0.5  10-yr Ave  -0.2
1955  Peak Ave   +0.3  10-yr Ave  +0.6
1972  Peak Ave   +0.2  10-yr Ave  -0.5
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.5

VT St Johnsbury
1895  First Adj  -0.3 
1904  First Ave  -0.2  10-yr Ave  -0.4
1909  Peak Ave   -0.2  10-yr Ave  -0.7
1955  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.5
1972  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.3
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.7


VA9difS

Virginia
VA Bremo Bluff
1899  First Adj   0.0 
1908  First Ave   0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.3
1957  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.2
1969  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.6
2009  Last Adj    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.8

VA Burkes Garden
1896  First Adj   0.0 
1905  First Ave   0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.3
1910  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.3
1939  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.2
1969  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.9
2009  Last Adj    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.5

VA Williamsburg
1900  First Adj   0.0 
1909  First Ave  -0.1  10-yr Ave  -0.4
1918  Mid Adj    -0.3  10-yr Ave  -0.2
1954  Peak Ave   -0.2  10-yr Ave  +0.4
1969  Peak Ave   -0.2  10-yr Ave  -0.5
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.6


WV9difS

West Virginia
WV Lewisburg
1900  First Adj   0.0 
1909  First Ave   0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.1
1939  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.7
1969  Peak Ave    0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.6
2009  Last Adj    0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.4

WV Winfield Locks
1900  First Adj  +0.4 
1909  First Ave  +0.2  10-yr Ave  _0.0
1924  Peak Ave   -0.1  10-yr Ave  -0.4
1947  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.4
1969  Peak Ave   _0.0  10-yr Ave  -0.7
2009  Last Adj   _0.0  10-yr Ave  +0.4


There is a mix of locations adjusted for warming (to reduce the warming trend in the raw data set) and for cooling (to increase the warming trend in the raw data set).

Here is an analysis of the temperature record.

created - Jan. 2011
last change - 02/03/2011
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