Red Red Shift Theory
Red shift is a measured change in the wavelength of an emission line in a spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.
Cosmologist are unable to explain all observations of a red shift.
This is a theory about how the different observations of a red shift are related.
This is long but I wish to explain my assumptions.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state. The photon energy of the emitted photon is equal to the energy difference between the two states. There are many possible electron transitions for each atom, and each transition has a specific energy difference.
In an atom, its emssion line wavelength is related to the electron shells involved in the transition between energy states. In a rough analogy the wavelength is related to the subatomic distance the electron moves between states.
Note the object generating the electromagnetic radiation emission line frequency can affect the wavelength of the wave's wave length , where the wavelength is reduced in the direction of travel or it is increased in the direction away from the direction of travel, This phenomenon is observed in sound waves and is called the doppler effect. Note the velocity of light is always the same, at c. The speed of these propagating EM fields is never affected by the acceleration or deceleration of its source.
An absorption line is a similar behavior to an emission line where an electron absorbs a specific frequency based on the energy levels in the atomic element or the molecular stucture. Upon absorbing that wavelength of an electric field's oscillation in the incoming wave the electron can move to a higher energy state,
In a radio frequency transmission antenna the wavelength for the electromagnetic radiation, or the channel's frequency (like a an AM radio station at 620 on a tuner is at 620 Khz) is driven by an electric field. The distance of the moving electric field determines the wavelength of the radiation.
An alternating electric current at the desired frequency drives the propagation of synchronized electric and magnetic fields (EM) at that frequency. The propagation of these fields travels at a constant speed in a vacuum; This velocity has been measured and is given the name of the constant c.
An emission line results from a particle in a gas, either a standalone atom or molecule. The emission spectrum changes with condensed matter, as either a liquid or a solid, where the bonds between atoms or molecules are dominant. The electrons no longer have defined discrete energy states so a broad spectrum band results, like visible light.
The sun emits visible light as a broad spectrum (as can be seen with a prism or rainbow ) because the Sun's observed surface is a surface known as a liquid metallic hydrogen lattice.The sun is composed of primarily ionized hydrogen that can form bonds with other hydrogen ions into what is also called condensed matter;because it is not a gas. The sun has an observed surface. We can see sun spots moving on it.
synchrotron radiation is also a broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. This results from an electric current bending in a strong magnetic field. ThisEM radiation also has nothing to do with discrete electron energy states. Its emission spectrum can span from infrared, to radio, to light, to X-ray to gamma ray.
Quasars have an anomalous red shift behavior.
Quasar, also known as a QSO or quasi-stellar object) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN). Energy [from a quasar] is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which can be observed across the electromagnetic spectrum. The power radiated by quasars is enormous: the most powerful quasars have luminosities thousands of times greater than a galaxy such as the Milky Way.
Halton Arp published his observations of quasars and their red shifts. Quasars in different areas of the sky would have the same red shift. The same value would be seen in pairs about their central galaxy, usually a Seyfert, This repetition of values impilied an intrinsic characteristic. For an observed pair of quasars they would have very similar red shifts in the observed quantized distribution, but the pair could have a small =+/- difference, probably as a result of their individual doppler effect relative to their direction toward earth.
This apparent quantized behavior of quasar red shifts implies when the hydrogen emission line was first emitted at the source it already had a quantized red shift due to its source in the quasar. As far as I know this quantized red shift behavior occurs only with quasars. Typically they have the largest red shifts.
These observations of quasars clearly demonstrate a red shift is NOT always due to only relative velocity.
These extremely high intrinsic red shifts when assumed be only velocity results in subequent serious problems for cosmologists.
The observed red shift can imply a velocity of its object faster than c.
There is still no explanation for the extreme luminosity of a seyfert or quasar.
Seyfert galaxies are one of the two largest groups of active galaxies, along with quasars. They have quasar-like nuclei (very luminous, distant and bright sources of electromagnetic radiation) with very high surface brightnesses whose spectra reveal strong, high-ionisation emission lines, but unlike quasars, their host galaxies are clearly detectable
When Halton Arp observed pairs of quasars associated with a Seyfert sometimes a BL LAC object would be present in the same line.
A BL Lacertae object or BL Lac object is a type of active galactic nucleus (AGN) or a galaxy with such an AGN, named after its prototype, BL Lacertae. In contrast to other types of active galactic nuclei, BL Lacs are characterized by rapid and large-amplitude flux variability and significant optical polarization.Because of these properties, the prototype of the class (BL Lac) was originally thought to be a variable star. When compared to the more luminous active nuclei (quasars) with strong emission lines, BL Lac objects have spectra dominated by a relatively featureless non-thermal emission continuum over the entire electromagnetic range. This lack of spectral lines historically hindered BL Lac's identification of their nature and proved to be a hurdle in the determination of their distance.
My conclusion: a BL LAC object is a quasar with no loose hydrogen ions in a gas above its surface, to generate emission lines.
Mistakes about large red shifts.
Cosmologists, rather than realizing their mistake about red shifts, instead chose illogical explanations.
a) the fabric of space was proposed to be expanding faster than c as well. This assumes the remote objects are being carried on a a fabric moving at a high velocity greater than c; the high velocity problem was just passed to the fabric of space instead which is a rather incredible alternative.
b) There is no identifiable force that can propel massive objects at a velocity near c.
Gravity must be ruled out because there are no observed huge concentrated masses at the edge of the universe.
Electromagnetic forces are ruled out because there are no observed sources for those forces either.
Cosmologists, rather than realizing their mistake instead chose some illogical explanations.
c)Gravitational lensing was proposed to explain why large red shift objects are observed where they are not supposed to be; i.e., in front of a low red shift objects).
None of these ad hoc theories have a basis in physics so they are irrational.
d) An invisible magical force was claimed to be out there somewhere for the unexplainable huge velocity. This invisible force is called dark energy. There is no explanation offered for how this dark energy actually accelerates galaxies to such assumed high velocities.
There is no mass involved in light. There is no force for its acceleration on or deceleration as with mass. Lght having no mass is not affected by gravity.
However its speed of propagation of its EM fields can be slower when passing through matter.
Light, in a vacuum, travels at 186,283miles/sec ( mps).
Light in air travels 186,200 mps or about 56 mps slower.
Light in another medium like water travels at 139,712 mps. or about 3/4 of light speed in a vacuum.
One must remember that when the EM waves are traveling in a medium like air or water they are slamming into air or water molecules, being absorbed and re-emitted, absorbed and re-emitted on and on. This absorption and re-emission changes with the density of the medium slowing it down. The same with glass, clear plastic etc
A prism reveals the broad spectrum in white light.
The glass of a prism, and the angles of its sides, work together to make a fascinating optical tool. When light passes from the air into glass, it slows down, and when it leaves the glass, it speeds up again. If the light hits the glass at an angle instead of dead-on, it undergoes refraction.
Low density plasma is known to be in intergalactic space.
An extragalactic magnetic field has been measured.
A magnetic field results from moving electrical charges. This magnetic field must originate in the plasma between galaxies.
Extragalactic magnetic fields are easily detected via their synchrotron radiation if radio telescopes are tuned to the lowest possible frequencies, all the way down to about 10 Mhz.
The passage of electromagnetic waves through plasma can be very complicated depending on the temperature, density, and fractional ionization of the plasma, the amplitude, frequency, and polarization of the electromagnetic radiation, and the presence of external electromagnetic fields.
However, as a supremely oversimplified, quick answer to your question [what happens to light passing through plasma], EM radiation can generally pass through a plasma without a whole lot of trouble if the frequency of the radiation is significantly greater than the plasma frequency of the plasma in question. In SI units,
<the source had several formulae with graphics characters.>
where ne is the equilibrium number density of the electrons (and ions - ne=ni in a neutral plasma), e is the electron charge, ?0 is the vacuum permittivity, and me is the electron mass.
You’ll notice that three of the four terms in that expression are constants, so if we measure ne in, say, number per cubic centimeter,
For context, the electron density in the ionosphere tops out around
The intergalactic medium (IGM) is a rarefied plasma.
"The Chandra observations found evidence for the massive and hot intergalactic medium filaments by noting a slight dimming in distant quasar X-rays likely caused by hot gas absorption.
The conclusion: electromagnetic waves could be affected by the charges and fields generated by the plasma in intergalactic space. I do no not know how that can be tested.
It is not clear to me whether the emission line frequencies could be shifted when traveling through intergalatic plasma to rxplain why all objects outside of the local group have a red shift..
Note that our Local Group is anomalous in the universe. Among the billions of galaxies in the universe, the only galaxies with a blue shift are near the Andromeda galaxy, M31. All the rest have red shift. (post on 03/29/2019).
It is not clear to me just how quasars are able to generate hydrogen emission lines with an intrinsic red shift.The emission mechanism for a quasar is inknown.
It is impossible to test red shifts in the universe as that would require a known light source separated from its detector at a distance of some MLY.
There are obviously mysteries for cosmologists to solve.
I suggest the first step should be dropping the dogma of every red shift is only velocity. Then astromers can explain behaviors of high red shift objects near low red shift objects. there would be no need for the illusion called gravitational lensingThere would be no need for the magical dark energy .
Currently cosmologists assume the observed red shifts must be due to velocity only and they have nothing to do with the light's passage through the intergalactic plasma.
That belief has not been verified.
Hopefully someday we can deal with what we observe though distant objects are claimed to be even more distant, at the edge of the universe, claimed to be expanding on a fabric. Also, we can deal without illusions for lensing and without the dark stuff.
My text never mentions a photon. I dealt with that subject in posts on 03/09/2019 and 03/10/2019.
I described the problem of gravity and light in a post on 03/25/2019.
Any feedback is appreciated. Perhaps some conclusions are not justified but I tried to explain them.
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