Hubble's Law and a Radar Gun
Here is a simple story about Hubble's Law, the very foundation of modern cosmology. The story includes a radar gun.
Hubble's Law from wikipedia:
Hubble's law is the observation in physical cosmology that objects observed in deep space—extragalactic space—are found to have a redshift, interpreted as a relative velocity away from Earth. This Doppler shift-measured velocity of various galaxies receding from the Earth is approximately proportional to their distance from the Earth for galaxies up to a few hundred megaparsecs away.
Hubble's law is considered the first observational basis for the expansion of the universe and today serves as one of the pieces of evidence most often cited in support of the Big Bang model. The motion of astronomical objects due solely to this expansion is known as the Hubble flow.
[If] we were to look at some fixed distance D and watch a series of different galaxies pass that distance, later galaxies would pass that distance at a smaller velocity than earlier ones.
The first time I read about Hubble's Law I could not believe this was believed. The very suggestion the velocity of an object was always directed related to its distance from Earth is incredible. The two cannot be related. It is clearly stated that as galaxies change their distance from Earth their velocity will change for that distance.
I will show my shock at this dogmatic belief with a simple story.
Imagine you are a rookie police officer and you just received a new radar gun to enforce posted speed limits. This new technology shows the velocity and also the direction, either toward the gun or away from the gun.
You point it at vehicles in the local neighborhood and their velocities are small and in either direction.
Next you point it at vehicles beyond the local group. You discover every vehicle is moving away from you. This is the case even when it looks to you like some of these vehicles are stopped or even approaching you.
Though the unit seems defective, you are a rookie and don't complain.
Next you point it at vehicles a little farther. The same mistake persists. As you point at distant vehicles they are all moving away at speeds faster as more distant vehicles are spotted.
Finally you point at the most distant vehicles. All are moving away from you at the maximum velocity that can be shown on the gun.
As a rookie officer this criminal behavior must be punished.
Everyone of those drivers in the most distant vehicles is given a ticket for speeding over the posted limit plus an additional citation for driving at such a dangerous speed.
When doing this ticketing, each driver becomes hysterical and irate and makes silly statements like 'I was not driving that fast!' or even the ridiculous claim 'my car can't go that fast!'
An officer with common sense would confidently conclude the new radar gun is defective, even when questioned by superiors.
I find it absolutely incredible many scientists have not questioned the validity of Hubble's Law over some 90 years.
Some scientists have published papers indicating intergalactic hydrogen will cause a red shift proportional to distance. The observed red shift has no connection to velocity.
This conclusion is ignored.
Instead the wrong conclusion of an expanding universe, dating back 90 years, persists. Too much is at stake now for a change.
This is the obvious consequence of 'group think' where each should believe whatever the group believes.
This is not a search for understanding, the assumed goal for science. This became just a search to confirm what is already believed.
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