I suspect astronomers are not familiar with ring currents.
Distant arcs are never explained as an electrical phenomenon.
This should not be when even Jupiter is known to have a ring current:
'The total ring current in the equatorial current sheet is estimated at 90–160 million amperes.'
Wikipedia has an image of the Jupiter magnetosphere showing the plasma torus.
If ring currents are unknown to astronomers then rings and arcs have no explanation - other than the bogus gravitational lens.
Hoag's Object might be the best known example of a ring of stars around a nucleus. I posted about Hoag's Object on April 29.
When zooming into an image (Wikipedia has one), another smaller, more distant Hoag's Object is seen at about 1 o'clock to the nucleus.
RXJ1131-1231 is another example of an object with rings. Wikipedia has an image combining light and X-ray.
I am rather astounded by the explanation of this image:
However, the measurements would not have been possible without a rare alignment of the quasar and a giant elliptical galaxy (which is itself part of a cluster of other galaxies in line with the quasar) which lies between Earth and RX J1131-1231. This line-up provided a quadruple gravitational lens which magnified the light coming from the quasar. The strong gravitational lensing effect associated with RX J1131-1231 has also produced measured time delays; that is, in one image the lensed quaser will be observed before the other image.
This image of a ring around the nucleus is rather similar to Hoag's Object so that should have been a possible explanation. Instead this image is claimed to be the result of 4 simultaneous lenses. Wow!
Abell 2261 has a well known partial arc to the left, at about 9 o'clock to the giant elliptical. This arc does not have a uniform intensity, slightly dimmer in the middle.
Abell 383 has a well known partial arc to the right, from about 3 to 6 o'clock to the giant elliptical. The bottom end of this arc has a slighter brighter object.
When zooming into this image, outside this arc and slightly below it is another object, an elliptical with a ring around it but disturbed as not a true circle.
There is a slight arc at about 8 o'clock to the nucleus but this arc terminates with a brighter object at the bottom end.
Arcs that terminate with a bright object must be quite a coincidence for a lens.
Abell S1063 has several partial arcs to the left of a huge elliptical galaxy.
Abell 1413 has a partial arc at about 11 o'clock to the giant elliptical.
It has this explanation:
Visible distortions in the image can be seen in the form of arcs, caused by gravitational lensing.
Abell 611 has an arc associated with a large central object. This arc extends from about 8 o'clock to about 12 o'clock.
Perhaps just a coincidence at about 5 o'clock from the nucleus are two bright objects, both inline with the nucleus. Roughly in line with these three, there is a possible spiral at about 11 o'clock above the ring near another object, but probably just another coincidence.
These interesting electrical effects are just dismissed as a distortion.
It is unfortunate that images are not available for all identified galaxy clusters.
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