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 X-Ray Point Source

On Earth there are known technologies to produce X-rays.

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X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that produces X-rays when current flows through it.
X-ray generator, any of various devices using X-ray tubes, lasers, or radioisotopes.
Synchrotron, which produces X-rays as synchrotron radiation
Cyclotron, which produces X-rays as cyclotron radiation.
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The common mechanism is synchrotron radiation, generated by an electric current bending in a magnetic field.
This radiation spans the broad range of wavelengths from infrared, radio, X-ray, gamma ray. Its spectrum of wavelengths is relatively flat covering that wide range.

Attached is a study assigning the source of X-rays in quasars and in BL Lac objects to synchrotron radiation.
Two excerpts:
first:
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RGB J1629+4008 is the first FSRQ ever found with synchrotron emission extending all the way to the X–ray band.
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second:
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The broad–band emission in these objects, which extends from the radio to the gamma–ray band, appears to be dominated by non–thermal processes from the heart of the AGN, often undiluted by the thermal emission present in other AGN. Therefore, blazars represent the ideal class to study to further our understanding of non–thermal emission in AGN.
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Note the conclusion is the AGN has non-thermal emission.


Sandia National Laboratories built their Z-pulse machine to duplicate a strong source of synchrotron radiation here in a laboratory on Earth. This project spans many years.

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Sandia’s Z machine is the world's most powerful and efficient laboratory radiation source. It uses high magnetic fields associated with high electrical currents to produce high temperatures, high pressures, and powerful X-rays for research in high energy density science. The Z machine creates conditions found nowhere else on Earth. Z is part of Sandia's Pulsed Power program, which began in the 1960s.
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A good example of this synchrotron radiation is the core of M87. All images in different wavelengths look the same because the source is generating all wavelengths. They all have the same donut shape which is called a plasmoid.
If the core has no visible object then that range of wavelengths is obscured by dust. The spectrum of M87 is available online. It is somewhat flat covering all the wavelengths, with some absorption and emission lines; those are from atoms outside the core.

from wikipedia:
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A plasmoid is a coherent structure of plasma and magnetic fields. Plasmoids produced in the laboratory include field-reversed configurations, spheromaks, and in dense plasma focuses.

The word plasmoid was coined in 1956 by Winston H. Bostick  to mean a "plasma-magnetic entity":

The plasma is emitted not as an amorphous blob, but in the form of a torus. We shall take the liberty of calling this toroidal structure a plasmoid, a word which means plasma-magnetic entity. The word plasmoid will be employed as a generic term for all plasma-magnetic entities.
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For many or all X-ray point sources cosmologists propose a black hole with an accretion disk.

The proposed mechanism is thermal radiation from the very hot accretion disk that could extend into X-ray wavelengths.
Thermal radiation is not over a broad range of wavelengths; its nonuniform distribution of wavelengths characterizes a blackbody's thermal radiation.
Wherever there is a point source detected in X-ray its spectrum should be checked. Finding it to be flat covering all the wavelengths confirms the source to be synchrotron radiation.

That was the conclusion of the attached study of quasars.

Cosmologists had proposed a quasar has a black hole with an accretion disk as its X-ray source. This study found that explanation to be wrong. The spectrum is consistent with synchrotron radiation.

When an X-ray source is claimed to be a black hole with an accretion disk then its spectrum must have the correct distribution of wavelengths. Just an object being detected in the range of X-ray wavelengths is not the correct confirmation.


This study confirmed quasars do not have a black hole with an accretion disk. This result suggests other proposed black holes as an X-ray source must be checked as well.
link


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