Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays
Astronomers are unable to explain ultra high energy cosmic rays.
These cosmic rays consisting of high velocity protons, nuclei, and electrons have an unknown source and unknown creation mechanism.
The path of these charged particles can be affected by the galactic magnetic field making their trajectory unknown.
Recent observations at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina (attached) are challenging current models, perhaps leading to 'new physics.'
'[He] reveals how cosmic-ray mysteries are continuing to test our understanding of high-energy physics.'
So you have two unpalatable choices. Either cosmic rays are protons and new physics is making them appear heavy. Or UHECRs are heavy particles and the Standard Model needs some serious tweaking.
The observed results after collisions of these high energy particles in Earth's atmosphere must be analyzed to determine the incoming particles. Protons and electrons are assumed while alpha particles (helium) are also expected but larger nuclei might be among the possibilities for these observations.
The recent explanation of the M87 plasmoid (by Thornhill) and its associated jets provides a known mechanism for generating cosmic rays.
The plasmoid in M87 is obscured by dust making it difficult to observe.
There are many objects observed to have jets along their axis. These objects are typically called a neutron star simply because there is no known mechanism in cosmology other than the plasmoid to generate jets of charged particles.
Astronomers will consider tweaking the standard model of subatomic particles to explain these recent observations.
Cosmic rays are important because they seem to increase cloud formation which affects weather.
If 'new physics' is required they are not understood.
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