3 Spheres of Astronomical Data
This is just an opinion topic, but perhaps a basis for discussion with its 'big picture' perspective.
There are 3 spheres of astronomical data with the innermost the most accurate and the outermost the least.
The data from the middle sphere is improving with new technology while the outermost sphere is hampered by mistakes in cosmology.
The innermost sphere is our solar system.
The accuracy and our understanding of this sphere's data are demonstrated by our slingshot trajectories for probes using multiple passes by planets to precisely arrive at a very distant location at a predicted time.
Pioneer 10 and 11 missions visited Jupiter and Saturn and continue on their way out of the solar system. Both have drained their power supplies so neither are transmitting data.
The Voyager 1 and 2 missions passed by several planets closely and are still transmitting from interstellar space. They provided data while passing through from the heliopause where the solar wind particles travel no further, the transition from the solar system to interstellar space.
The New Horizons probe had flawless close encounters with both Pluto and Ultima Thule after a very long travel.
Any problems with data in this innermost sphere involve any electrical behaviors.
The Sun is assumed to be a gaseous sphere capable of attaining the extreme temperatures and pressures to sustain fusion for billions of years.
The Electric Sun model better explains the solar observations than the gaseous sun model.
All the gas giants have mysteries, including they are warmer than possible by the distant sun light and both Jupiter and Saturn have intense magnetic fields. These mysteries and others (like comets) will be solved when including electromagnetic behaviors as in EU cosmology.
The EU approach includes observations of planetary events recorded by our ancestors which offer an insight into the evolution of our solar system.
Ignoring all these observations is simply bad science.
When cosmologists ignore the Electric Universe an understanding of our solar system, our innermost sphere, is hampered.
Our solar system essentially ends at the heliopause, the transition to interstellar space in our galaxy.
The middle sphere is our Milky Way galaxy.
Our galaxy has been observed for countless generations. However only in 1922 did astronomers officially recognize there were other galaxies beyond our own.
Large optical telescopes were built in the 19th century but the 20th century brought even larger telescopes for different frequencies including radio.
With telescopes being launched into space in the last 50 years beyond our atmosphere, additional frequencies became available extending from infrared to X-ray and gamma ray.
Our Milky Way is not completely visible due to its Zone of Avoidance where the density of stars and dust obscures everything behind it.
it is actually impossible to count all the stars in our galaxy.
The Gaia space probe (launched in 2013) captured data, including position (by parallax) and spectrum, from about a billion objects, most within the Milky Way. Globular clusters and the Magellanic Clouds were also in the collection.
With so many stars involved it is critical we understand our closest star, the Sun, to understand our galaxy; otherwise there is no basis.
Until this obstacle is overcome, our understanding of our galaxy is hindered.
Cosmology presents another obstacle in this sphere.
When ignoring the Electric Universe, with innovations like its explanation for a galaxy rotation when recognizing electromagnetic forces, our understanding of our galaxy is misdirected when restricted by cosmology to gravity. Dark matter is the consequence.
The outermost sphere is our observable universe.
The size of this sphere depends on our technology. Technology improvements enable gathering data from dimmer objects at increasing distances.
The start of this outermost sphere, and the separation from the middle sphere, is the transition to the intergalactic medium (IGM).
All electromagnetic radiation from objects outside our galaxy must pass through anything in that IGM whether the intervening particles are uncharged or plasma. The galaxy has a magnetic field affecting surrounding plasma.
Atoms or molecules in space can absorb their characteristic wavelengths from light in their path resulting in absorption lines in the observed spectrum.
The correct interpretation of these spectral lines from intervening atoms in the IGM is critical.
The galaxies in the same direction as the M31 and M33 galaxies have calcium absorption lines. These lines also have a blue shift implying the atom is approaching.
These calcium atoms in the IGM indicate nothing about a galaxy behind them. Astronomers make the mistake of treating this calcium absorption line as representing a galaxy velocity. The line of a missing wavelength cannot.
Every galaxy beyond our Milky Way is in the IGM (or in the outermost sphere).
As a result every galaxy exhibits a redshifted hydrogen absorption line because there are hydrogen atoms in the IGM.
These atoms in the IGM indicate nothing about a galaxy behind them. Astronomers make the mistake of treating this hydrogen atom's absorption line as representing a galaxy velocity. The line of a missing wavelength as the result of an atom in thr IGM cannot.
Quasars are quasi-stellar objects which have a unique feature, a hydrogen atom in motion resulted in a hydrogen emission line with its wavelength red shifted because this atom is moving away from Earth.
The quasar emits jets of material at a very high velocity including hydrogen atoms. Similar jets of similar high velocity are also observed from the M87 galaxy.
Atoms in these jets indicate nothing about the galaxy involved. Astronomers know M87 galaxy is not moving at the high velocity of its jets. The M87 AGN emitting its jets was famously imaged in April as a donut shaped object. It was accepted to not have a velocity like its jets.
However astronomers make the mistake of treating this hydrogen atom's emission line from within a jet as representing a quasar velocity. The atom's emission line cannot provide that value.
As a result of these two critical mistakes, astronomers see all galaxies and quasars have redshifts indicating all are moving away from Earth. The absorption line redshifts are not the same values as the emission line redshifts so all have varying calculated velocities but all indicate recession.
Astronomers make another mistake assuming distance is directly proportional to the velocity derived from a redshift. As a result, all galaxies and quasars are calculated at ever increasing distances as redshifts are increasing, as dimmer, more distant objects can be measured.
All of these velocities and distances are wrong.
Instead of fixing these redshift mistakes cosmologists propose the cosmological redshift where part of the redshift measured for all distant objects is assumed from the expansion of the fabric of space causing the light spectrum passing through the moving fabric of space to stretch all the wavelengths presumably explaining this redshift anomaly. This universe expansion is assumed uniform though the galaxy and quasar redshifts are not strictly uniform.
Many mistakes follow the redshift mistake. Dark energy is proposed for the mechanism of this false expansion of the universe fabric.
Much of the data in this outermost sphere has little value given these fundamental mistakes.
The Electric Universe cosmology also avoids in this outermost sphere other mistakes from popular cosmology including black holes, dark energy, dark matter, gravitational lensing, and gravitational waves.
Considering the outermost sphere was almost unknown before 1922, we are making progress in these 100 years but along a perturbed path.
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