Local Group On Our Hubble Island
There are no blue shift objects in the universe outside of our Local Group and the nearest galaxy Group, the Maffei Group.
Together these have all the blue shifts in the universe. They are the reason for the fictitious Hubble Island separated from the Hubble Flow.
I found a reference for the local group. It had 35 objects with their right ascension, declination, relative velocity, estimated distance.
Of the 35, 16 had blue shift, 11 had red shift, 8 were missing that value in the reference.
Among those missing are And I, And II, And III, And V, And VI, so I can only wonder if they were not sampled due to proximity to M31.
I did not attempt to calculate distances between 2 objects based on differences in RA and in declination, along with their respective distances from Earth.
There are several objects with a red shift and they are probably not near Andromeda.
There are several objects with a blue shift and they are apparently relatively near Andromeda.
This is just a coarse analysis of the local group motions.
Posts on 04/24/2019 for Hubble's Law and Flow and on 04/24/2019 for quasars, have described the ways blue shifts and red shifts are interpreted wrong.
I will post the celestial positions and distances but all velocities are probably wrong.
link to Local Group data.
( https://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/9908/9908050.pdf )
I tried to change the positions in the reference document to differences to Andromeda, to make that simple comparison easier by the general area.
This exercise is only relative velocities and relative positions.
This is a preliminary analysis based on what is available.
Vr = velocity as relative value; + is red shift or recession.
Vr=- value is blue shift
D2 = distance to object, in Mpc
Vr=M = missing data
DIG is dwarf Irregular Galaxy
DS is dwarf spherical galaxy
This is the spread around the local group, relative to M31, starting at the opposite point in azimuth so M31 is in the middle of the list. There are 35 objects in the reference.
Its right ascension is 00h 42m; its declination is 41d 16m
AD values are from object to M31, to nearest hour or degree
D+ value indicates object has higher declination than M31.
name / position relative to M31 / vel. / distance
DDO 199 A-9h D+26d Vr=-247 D2=0.06blue
DDO 208 Ah Dd Vr=-293 D2= 0.08blue
sagittarius-DS A-6h D71d Vr=+142 D2= 0.03red +d
SAG-DIG A-5h D-58d Vr=-79 D2= 1.40blue
NGC 6822 Ah D-55d Vr=-56 D2= 0.50blue
DDO 210 Ah Dd Vr=-131 D2= 1.02blue
Tucana-DS A-4h D-105d Vr=M D2=0.87miss -d
And VII A-1h D9d Vr= M D2=0.69miss
DDO 216 Ah Dd Vr=-182 D2= 0.76blue
And VI A-1h D-17d Vr=M D2= 0.83miss
DDO221 A0h D-56d Vr=-120 D2= 0.93blue
UGC 192 A0h D+18d Vr=-344 D2= 0.66blue
NGC 185 A0h D-7d Vr=-193 D2= 0.66blue
And III A0h D-5d Vr=M D2= 0.76miss
NGC 185 A0h D+7d Vr=-202 D2= 0.22blue
NGC 205 A0h D0d Vr=-244 D2= 0.76blue
M32 A0h D0d Vr=-205 D2= 0.76blue
M31 Andromeda A0h D0d Vr=-301 D2= 0.76 blue M31
And I A0h D-3d Vr=M D2= 0.81miss
SMC a0h d-113d Vr=148 D2= 0.06blue
Sculptor A+1h D-74d Vr=+110 D2= 0.09red-d
LGS 3 A+1h D-20d Vr=-286 D2= 0.81blue
IV1613 A+1h D-39d Vr=-232 D2= 0.72blue
And V A+1h D+6d Vr=M D2= 0.81miss
And II A+1h D-8d Vr=M D2= 0.70miss
M33 A+1h D-11d Vr=-181 D2= 0.79 M33blue
PhoenixDS A+1h D-85d Vr=M D2= 0.4miss
Fornax DS A+2h D-75d Vr=+53 D2= 0.14red-d
LMC A+5h D-110d Vr=+275 D2= 0.05red-d
Carina A+6h D-91d Vr=+223 D2= 0.10red-d
Leo A DDO 69 A+9h D-71d Vr=+24 D2= 0.69 red-d
Leo I DS A+10h D-29d Vr=+287 D2= 0.25 red =-d
Sextans DS A+10h D-42d Vr=+226 D2= 0.09red +h
Leo II DDO 93 A+11h D-19d Vr=+76 D2= 0.21red +h
UrsaMi DDO 199 A+15h D+26d Vr=-247 D2= 0.06 blue
Draco DDO 208 A+17h D+26d Vr=-293 D2= 0.08 blue
sagittarius-DS A+18h D-71d Vr=+142 D2= 0.03 red-d
red +h indicates RA diff is many = +h
red-d indicates dec is many -d
find references to these 2 recent additions to the Local Group but they are not in the reference; I found their data in Wikipedia or online
they are not included in the summary above to distinguish data from one source from this later separate reference
and also these appear distant
UGCA 86 A+4h D+26d Vr=+67 D2=2.60red far
Tucana II A+22h D-105d Vr=+130 D2=0.98red-d
I did not actually try to plot all the objects in space.
Maybe my estimation of distance in 3-D was incorrect.
Regardless of whether objects are close enough there is an apparent pattern.
Maffei Galaxy Group is one of the closest galaxy groups to our Local Group.
I find this group interesting because it has one large spiral galaxy, Maffei 2, one medium spiral galaxy, NGC1560, and one irregular galaxy, Camelopardalis A; these three have a rare blue shift.
Blue shifts are a problem for cosmologists:
An analysis of the velocities and distances to the IC 342/Maffei Group as measured by [several] suggested that IC 342 and Maffei 1 were moving faster than what could be accounted for in the expansion of the universe.
Perhaps this is useless trivia but some might find it interesting and worthwhile.
Without details these are just boring points of light in the sky or we don't even know they are there.
Above are data for our Local Group. That list of objects in our Local Group has their spectral shift, celestial position difference in relation to M31, and distance from Earth.
Vr is the relative velocity; D2 is the distance to the object in Mpc.
Wikipedia has a page titled "IC342/Maffei Group"
For reference, here are some notable objects in our Local Group:
M31 Andromeda A0h D0d Vr=-301 D2= 0.76 blue
SMC a0h d-113d Vr=+148 D2= 0.06 red -d
M33 A+1h D-11d Vr=-181 D2= 0.79 blue-d
LMC A+5h D-110d Vr=+275 D2= 0.05 red-d
Here is that type of data for the IC342 subgroup in Maffei Galaxy Group. Some distances are not available. Different wikipedia pages have different values.
Camelopardalis A A+4h D+31d Vr = -46 D? blue+h
Camelopardalis B A+4h D+26d Vr = +77 D? red+h
Cassiopeia 1 A+2h D+27d Vr=+35 D? red+d
IC 342 A+3h D+27d Vr=+31 D2=3.3 red+d
KK 35 A+3h D+46d Vr=+105 D? red+d
NGC 1560 A+4h D+30d Vr= -36 D2=3.1 or 3.5 blue+d
NGC 1569 A+4h D+23d Vr=-104 D2=3.4 blue+d
UGCA 86 A+4h D+26d Vr= +67 D2=2.6 red+d
UGCA 92A+4h D+22d Vr=-99 D? B
UGCA 105 A+5h D+21d Vr= +111 D? red+d
Here is that data for the Maffei subgroup in the Maffei Galaxy Group.
Dwingeloo 1 A+2h D+27d Vr=+110 D2=3.0 red+d
Dwingeloo 2 A+3h D+18d Vr=+94 D2=3.0 red+d
KKH 11A+2h D+15d Vr=+310 D? red+d
KKH 12A+2h D0dVr=+70D?red+h
Maffei 1A+2h D0dVr=+13 D2=2.9 or 4.4 red+h
Maffei 2A0+3h D0d Vr=-17 D2=32.0blue+h
MB 1A+2h D0dVr=+190D?red+h
MB 3A+3h D0dVr=+59 D2=3.0red+h
Maffei 1 is very close to Maffei 2 in celectial positions with a difference in RA of only 0h5m and in dec of 0d3' but they are moving in opposite directions and have very different distances.
Maffei 1 is a giant elliptical
(perhaps the closest of this type); if not obscured it is 3/4 the full moon.
Maffei 2 is an intermediate spiral, also obscured.
Maffei 2 is one of the very rare blue shift objects in the universe.
Local Group and Maffei Group are in the Virgo Supercluster.
Our group is associated with the Virgo cluster in this supercluster
Here is some data for the Virgo cluster where noted:
IC 3418 Vr=+38 D2=17.0
M100 Vr=+1571 d2=17.0
M87 Vr = +1254 or 1307 D2 = 16.4
M87 is a supergiant elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo. One of the most massive galaxies in the local Universe
Markarian's Chain is a stretch of galaxies that forms part of the Virgo Cluster. When viewed from Earth, the galaxies lie along a smoothly curved line. Member galaxies include M84 (NGC 4374), M86 (NGC 4406), NGC 4477, NGC 4473, NGC 4461, NGC 4458, NGC 4438 and NGC 4435.
I checked the other galaxy groups in the Virgo supercluster and none had velocity data in Wikipedia.
The other galaxy groups:
Canes II group, M81 group, M94 group, M96 group, M101 group
M109 group, NGC1023 group, NGC 2997 group
NGC 4038 group, NGC 4631 group, NGC 5866 group, NGC 4038 group, Sculptor group
My post on 04/16/2019 about M31 explains this mistake by cosmologists. These blue shift objects are not necessarily moving toward us. That post uses relative velocities from individual stars in M31 to show M31 actually has a slow relative velocity, near zero.
Last updated (05/11/2019)
Hit back to go to previous page in history.
Select Cosmology to see other posts and comments to that group.
Research link is near the bottom.