In the Face Book group:
In modern physical cosmology, the cosmological principle is the notion that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic when viewed on a large enough scale, since the forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large-scale structuring over the course of evolution of the matter field that was initially laid down by the Big Bang.
The cosmological principle was possibly first asserted in the Philosophić Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) of Isaac Newton.
Karl Popper criticized the cosmological principle on the grounds that it makes "our lack of knowledge a principle of knowing something". He summarized his position as:
"the “cosmological principles” were, I fear, dogmas that should not have been proposed."
Many of the galactic super clusters were first being found in the 1980's.
The Huge-LQG, discovered in 2012, is three times longer than, and twice as wide as is predicted possible according to these current models, and so challenges our understanding of the universe on large scales.
In November 2013, a new structure 10 billion light years away measuring 2000-3000 Mpc (more than seven times that of the SGW) has been discovered, the Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall, putting further doubt on the validity of the cosmological principle.
In September 2016, however, studies of the expansion of the Universe that have used data taken by the Planck mission show it to be highly isotropical, reinforcing the cosmological principle.
I assume most have seen a picture of the intergalactic structures. A simple one is in the link below. I do not understand how this huge collection of large complex structures of galactic clusters can be called homogeneous, when viewed at this large scale.
The intergalactic medium is the hot, X-ray emitting gas that permeates the space between galaxies. With temperatures of millions of degrees Kelvin and containing less than one atom per cubic meter (a density less than 10-27 kg/m3), intergalactic space is one of the hottest and most rarefied environments in the Universe.
A hot X-ray emitting gas sounds like a birkelund current.
see wikipedia.org : Galaxy_filament
In physical cosmology, galaxy filaments (subtypes: supercluster complexes, galaxy walls, and galaxy sheets) are the largest known structures in the universe. They are massive, thread-like formations, with a typical length of 50 to 80 megaparsecs h-1 (163 to 261 million light-years) that form the boundaries between large voids in the universe. Filaments consist of gravitationally bound galaxies. Parts wherein many galaxies are very close to one another (in cosmic terms) are called superclusters.
Is it time to reconsider the validity of the cosmological principle?
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