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# Black Hole Worm Hole

Are they possible?

Both rely on an interpretation of spacetime.

Wormholes are more popular since the release of the movie Interstellar which featured a wormhole named Gargantuan.
A worm hole concept arose from Einstein's theory of relativity. He defined a number of equations to deal with an accelerating observer. Those equations lead other theorists to propose several theoretical anomalies like black holes and worm holes.

In relativity, spacetime is your / the observer's frame of reference, with 3 linear dimensions in space plus time or your local time.  Spacetime is essentially a 4-D geometry with 4 coordinates. 'Relativity' involves your frame of reference 'relative' to the physical space. Time is always local but its zero reference is defined as needed.

Black holes

It seems black holes arose with Einstein. In a single body universe all the mass in the universe could theoretically collapse into a single point, called a singularity.
This is a geometric point in the theory so it had zero radius. However the theory proposed all the mass could be compressed into a point. Practically, no matter could exist (even a proton has a known diameter) but the theoretical point still exerts a force of gravity based on that uncompressed mass. This impossibility  (gravity from a point) alone should have discarded black holes. It is also derived by theory from a single body universe.  Since there must be at least one other body in the universe, holding you, the observer; that inevitable second body is another reason to discard a black hole.
The theory evolved to include an event horizon.
Even though light has no mass it was assumed the gravity of  singularity was strong enough to prevent light from escaping.
Spacetime curvature was proposed. The force of gavity would cause curvature in the observer's (the black hole) frame of reference so the observer observed spacetime curvature.

Even though this curvature is from the observer at the black hole, the theory held  no light could be emitted by this point source of gravity but also it would absorb all light around it
(from other bodies in this single body universe) so it would be black - no light.

Light is the propagation of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields that always move at the speed of light in a vacuum.

A point source of gravity cannot affect light. especially not by a stop of its fixed velocity of propagation as proposed.
This is another reason to discard the black hole theory.

It was also held this point source of gravity would consume any nearby matter, so more matter could be added to that matter already within the point, compressed to zero radius. The impossibility is compounded.

Black holes are proposed to exist in the universe by cosmologists whenever they are unable to explain an observation. An invisible point source of gravity can be useful. It can be proposed to affect matter beyond its event horizon, like an accretion disk where electromagnetic radiation is proposed to originate (since that EMR can't come the black hole).
Despite all these basic problems with a black hole which was defined to be a point in the observer's spacetime, someone also proposed a worm hole.

Worm Holes

From wikipedia:

'
A wormhole (or Einstein–Rosen bridge) is a speculative structure linking disparate points in spacetime, and is based on a special solution of the Einstein field equations solved using a Jacobian matrix and determinant. A wormhole can be visualized as a tunnel with two ends, each at separate points in spacetime (i.e., different locations or different points of time). More precisely it is a transcendental bijection of the spacetime continuum, an asymptotic projection of the Calabi–Yau manifold manifesting itself in Anti-de Sitter space.

Wormholes are consistent with the general theory of relativity, but whether wormholes actually exist remains to be seen.

A wormhole could connect extremely long distances such as a billion light years or more, short distances such as a few meters, different universes, or different points in time.
'

A wormhole proposes a connection between a point in the observer's spacetime with another point in the observer's space time.

The time in the observer's space time is a count of increments defined by the observer (e.g., seconds or msec)
The zero reference for this count can be changed so the observer could start with time=0 or it could be the current yr-mm-dd-hh-mm-ss.

The worm hole proposes a simultaneity of positions in space time.

An observer is presently at a particular 3-D point in space at the current time

A wormhole proposes a connection to another point in space time as if the observer can immediately change his position in space and his current local time to another value in an instant.
It is not defined what happens on arrival. Is this a collision or is one object pushed aside for the other, or does the observer always win? Perhaps there is an additional rule reconciling time.
I don't find the rules for wormhole traffic.

How or why this change occurs in the observer's position in his spacetime, to trigger this wormhole connection,  is undefined. I will just ignore it, since it is only theoretical.

From wikipedia (another mention of this bridge,with an explicit mention of black hole):

'
According to general relativity, the gravitational collapse of a sufficiently compact mass forms a singular Schwarzschild black hole. In the Einstein–Cartan–Sciama–Kibble theory of gravity, however, it forms a regular Einstein–Rosen bridge. This theory extends general relativity by removing a constraint of the symmetry of the affine connection and regarding its antisymmetric part, the torsion tensor, as a dynamical variable. Torsion naturally accounts for the quantum-mechanical, intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of matter. The minimal coupling between torsion and Dirac spinors generates a repulsive spin–spin interaction that is significant in fermionic matter at extremely high densities. Such an interaction prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity. Instead, the collapsing matter reaches an enormous but finite density and rebounds, forming the other side of the bridge.

'

Clearly physicists are still gaming these theoretical concepts of black holes and worm holes. The gravitational singularity is part of both. That was addressed above with black holes.

Neither hole exists in nature.

Date updated 03/23/2019

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