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Using Absorption and Emission Lines

Over the past few weeks I posted about the misuse of absorption and emission lines. I noted those dates below.
Here is a summary of those observations. There is nothing new or radical here; just a logical interpretation of what is already known.

Hydrogen Absorption Line

There is a low density of neutral hydrogen (NH) atoms in intergalactic space. This results in a progressive red shift as light passes through it. The amount of shift is determined by the number of atoms over the distance from source to observer. Hubble's Law observed this relationship where Cepheid variables provided a separate distance measurement. Cosmologists make the mistake of assuming the galaxies showing this red shift have such an implied velocity; there is no motion involved in this shift. (April 24)

The Virgo cluster indicates a different ratio between shift and distance, implying the density of NH is not consistent. Hubble's Law for red shifts (not velocity) was approximate only within the Local Group. (May 13)

Any use of the hydrogen absorption line depends on where the hydrogen is, making this an unreliable indicator over long distances.

Calcium Absorption Line

Several galaxies in the Local Group have blue shifted calcium absorption lines. As this is observed by direction to the source there must be a cloud of calcium atoms in a certain area within the Local Group, as in: toward M31, M33, and others. Cosmologists make the mistake of assuming the galaxies behind the calcium atoms have the same velocity. (May 12)

Other Absorption Lines.

The solar spectrum has absorption lines from atoms in the solar atmosphere above the source of the broad spectrum. The Earth's thick atmosphere does this also though they are usually called absorption bands not lines.
A quasar spectrum has several absorption lines for different elements indicating their presence above the core, as well as different layers of clouds. (April 24)

Hydrogen Emission Line

Galaxies can have excited hydrogen atoms in motion. Monitoring their emission line shifts provides information about the galactic rotation. (April 18)

Quasars have a unique feature with hydrogen emission lines red shifted implying a relativistic velocity. This velocity is of an ion not the quasar.
Halton Arp had observed these red shifts appear to have quantized increments. That must be a characteristic of the arrangement of electromagnetic fields capable of this particle's extreme acceleration. Cosmologists make the mistake of assuming the quasar with this ion in motion nearby has the same velocity as the ion.   (April 24)
There is even a youtube video by Run Ze Cao that explains how a velocity faster than light can be achieved, though a quasar is not mentioned.

Absorption lines and emission lines have legitimate uses but also limitations. Interpreting them wrong has consequences like a fictitious expanding fabric of space stretching at relativistic velocities.

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