Cosmology Uncertainty Principle
Cosmology needs to follow a basic principle to avoid silly mistakes.
This new principle is very simple but critical.
Cosmology Uncertainty Principle
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Certainty is not possible at the galactic scale.
When this basic principle is ignored silly mistakes occur.
The universe is very complicated at the galactic scale. Stars have an electric field and a gravitational field. The galaxy has a magnetic field and intergalactic space has a magnetic field. This combination is more than just a 'three body problem.'
Cosmologists can use mathematical models to simulate this environment. The use of probabilities derived from observations allows the model to provide a useful approximation of expected future behaviors.
The Sun is known to orbit in the Milky Way in a path that is not an ellipse. Its path is 'disturbed' by the other billion or so stars near its path. The same context exists in all galaxies.
The universe is not deterministic and so it is not precisely predictable. When using probabilities, certainty of a future outcome is impossible.
Unfortunately cosmologists have not recognized the cosmology uncertainty principle. This mistake leads to other silly mistakes like claiming there are 'dark' things that don't exist.
Dark matter has been necessary for cosmologists for a long time. Quotes are from Wikipedia.
The hypothesis of dark matter has an elaborate history. In a talk given in 1884, Lord Kelvin estimated the number of dark bodies in the Milky Way from the observed velocity dispersion of the stars orbiting around the center of the galaxy.
Other scientists observing stellar motions also concluded there is hidden mass affecting the motion of stars.
In 1933, Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky, who studied galaxy clusters while working at the California Institute of Technology, made a similar inference. Zwicky applied the virial theorem to the Coma Cluster and obtained evidence of unseen mass that he called dunkle Materie ('dark matter'). Zwicky estimated its mass based on the motions of galaxies near its edge and compared that to an estimate based on its brightness and number of galaxies. He estimated that the cluster had about 400 times more mass than was visually observable. The gravity effect of the visible galaxies was far too small for such fast orbits, thus mass must be hidden from view. Based on these conclusions, Zwicky inferred that some unseen matter provided the mass and associated gravitation attraction to hold the cluster together. This was the first formal inference about the existence of dark matter.
The galaxies and their clusters were observed to move not as predicted.
era Rubin, Kent Ford and Ken Freeman's work in the 1960s and 1970s, provided further strong evidence, also using galaxy rotation curves. Rubin and Ford worked with a new spectrograph to measure the velocity curve of edge-on spiral galaxies with greater accuracy. This result was confirmed in 1978. An influential paper presented Rubin and Ford's results in 1980. They showed that most galaxies must contain about six times as much dark as visible mass; thus, by around 1980 the apparent need for dark matter was widely recognized as a major unsolved problem in astronomy.
Cosmologists have been dealing with dark matter for several decades simply because they do not recognize the Cosmology Uncertainty Principle. The models cannot be certain.
There is no dark matter. It is required because motions do not follow models. Unfortunately for cosmologists the universe does not follow a mathematical model. Cosmologists assume it must follow the model so dark matter must be there.
After the Cosmology Uncertainty Principle is recognized dark matter will immediately disappear from the universe. We just accept the models are close but can be improved.
During the 1980s, most cosmological research focused on models with critical density in matter only, usually 95% cold dark matter and 5% ordinary matter (baryons). These models were found to be successful at forming realistic galaxies and clusters, but some problems appeared in the late 1980s: in particular, the model required a value for the Hubble constant lower than preferred by observations, and the model under-predicted observations of large-scale galaxy clustering. These difficulties became stronger after the discovery of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background by the COBE spacecraft in 1992, and several modified CDM models came under active study through the mid-1990s: these included the Lambda-CDM model and a mixed cold/hot dark matter model. The first direct evidence for dark energy came from supernova observations in 1998 of accelerated expansion in Riess et al. and in Perlmutter et al., and the Lambda-CDM model then became the leading model. Soon after, dark energy was supported by independent observations: in 2000, the BOOMERanG and Maxima cosmic microwave background experiments observed the first acoustic peak in the CMB, showing that the total (matter+energy) density is close to 100% of critical density. Then in 2001, the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey gave strong evidence that the matter density is around 30% of critical. The large difference between these two supports a smooth component of dark energy making up the difference.
The main impetus for dark energy is the observed high velocities of galaxies at extreme distances, due to the supposed expansion of the universe fabric of space. (These velocities are wrong due to a mistake with red shifts.)
The cosmological model cannot explain these galactic motions.
Cosmologists assume the universe must follow the model so dark energy must be there.
After the Cosmology Uncertainty Principle is recognized dark energy will immediately disappear from the universe. We just accept the models are close but can be improved.
I find it ironic quantum mechanics has the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Subatomic particles have an unpredictable position so QM is based on probabilities.
QM does not invoke something dark simply because their uncertainty principle prevents that doomed prediction with subatomic particles.
The scale for uncertainty:
The solar system has the massive sun at the focus for ellipses while there are few other massive bodies to drastically disturb the other ellipses.
A galaxy has no massive body to reside at a focus for ellipses. Stars in a galaxy have poorly defined orbits simply because there are so many.
Cosmology needs its own uncertainty principle.
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