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Two Red Shift Predictions.

I have two predictions about red shifts. As both apply to the future neither can be confirmed now. However they can be debated using just logic. Such a debate is worthwhile for cosmology.

1) There is no limit on Z the factor of the red shift in the hydrogen atom absorption line wavelength being measured from distant galaxies. This red shift value is currently used to calculate a velocity (Z times c = velocity).

2) If we viewed the universe from another galaxy we would perceive us at the new center of the expanding universe, just as we see the Earth now at this center of the expanding universe, sometimes called the Hubble Flow.

The basis for both predictions:

The initial observation in the 1930's that the red shift measured in the hydrogen atom absorption line in a galaxy spectrum is proportional to the distance of that galaxy.

Cepheid variable stars in galaxies enabled calculating a distance to that galaxy, so it could be determined by another mechanism. This resulted in Hubble's Law for red shift to distance.

Eventually some scientists proposed neutral hydrogen atoms in intergalactic space could result in this observation.
This theory appears to be confirmed by observations like the Virgo Centric Flow where different galaxy clusters apparently have a different density of neutral hydrogen atoms resulting a different ratio for more or less red shift.
Therefore the Hubble Constant could vary by direction depending on intervening galaxy clusters.

This theory also appears to be confirmed by galaxies seen to be more distant appear to have more red shift because of the greater distance, through more intervening atoms in space.

Regardless of the physical mechanism for this particular absorption line wavelength to shift to the red or increase (I have seen alternate theories) the rough ratio of red shift to distance continues to be observed. Therefore the mechanism itself is not relevant here.

Note: this distance relationship is observed only with the hydrogen absorption line. The hydrogen emission line truly indicates relative velocity and its red or blue shift is used for observing spiral galaxy rotation. Any absorption line for an element could occur by that atom anywhere between the source and observer.

The justification for prediction (1):

As our technology improves we are able to image ever more dimmer objects. As light dims over distance we are seeing objects more distant than before and so the highest red shift observed can be increasing. This is due to the red shift to distance relationship.

The limit on the Z red shift is based on our imaging technology for what is the dimmest object that can be observed and so that is both our distance limit and our current Z limit.

There is no actual limit when its value increases only by technological advances.

If the universe is finite only then there is a limit on Z.
This would be the end of the universe. I know of no one making that claim, that the universe is not infinite for us.

If the red shift to distance relationship is falsified then this prediction has no basis.

Unfortunately the red shift due to distance is incorrectly treated as a velocity.

These observations of increasing red shifts when treated as increasing velocities result in the wrong perception of an expanding universe. The furthest distance we can observe is increasing but not the actual universe or its fabric of space. We will continue to see increasing values of Z. This will probably result in subsequent claims of the fastest object ever observed, because the red shift is treated as a velocity. The current maximum red shift results in an assumed velocity 11 times the speed of light, an absolutely incredible velocity for a massive galaxy. Future observations of dimmer, more distant galaxies will be treated as even higher multiples of c. The highest Z depends on the most distant spectrum observed.

The justification for prediction (2):

All objects in the universe are radiating their light in all directions.

All observers in the universe, wherever they are in whichever galaxy, will see all the distant galaxies red shifted by their distance. Each observer, unless they avoid the crucial mistake made by Earth's cosmologists treating a hydrogen absorption line red shift as a velocity, will see themselves at the center of the expanding universe though they are not at the site of the center seen by all the other observers.

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