Nonuniform Universe Expansion
Part of the foundation of modern cosmology is an expanding universe. It is commonly described as uniform in all directions, away from Earth.
This is an interesting conundrum because it was known in the 1930's this expansion is not uniform. In 1936 Edwin Hubble noted our Local Group is isolated from the Hubble Flow, another name for the expanding universe.
From a Harvard 1999 paper titled 'The local group of galaxies' extract:
Hubble's (1936, p. 125) view that the Local Group (LG) is "a typical, small group of nebulae which is isolated in the general field'' is confirmed by modern data. The total number of certain and probable Group members presently stands at 35. The zero-velocity surface, which separates the Local Group from the field that is expanding with the Hubble flow, has a radius R o = 1.18+/- 0.15 Mpc. The solar motion with respect to the LG is 306+/- 18 km/s, directed towards an apex at l = 99o+/- 5o, and b = -4o+/- 4o. The velocity dispersion within the LG is sigma r = 61+/- 8 km/s. The galaxies NGC 3109, Antlia, Sextans A and Sextans B appear to form a distinct grouping with V r = +114+/- 12 kpc relative to the LG, that is located beyond the LG zero-velocity surface at a distance of 1.7 Mpc from the Local Group centroid.
Apparently (from this paper) cosmologists are comfortable with our local group on its own 'zero-velocity surface.' This has been 'confirmed with modern data.' This 'surface has a radius of 1.7 Mpc so this island is a sphere.This assumption the rest of the universe behaves differently than the universe closer to us on Earth than 4MLY is not consistent with a uniform universe expansion.
This implies the expanding fabric of space has a defined seam in it, similar to plate tectonics but this is a spherical piece of fabric with an observed radius around 4MLY.
The claimed uniform expansion of the universe conflicts with the observation of no expansion close to Earth.
This nonuniform expansion noted in 1936 had another later observation to address.
The Virgocentric flow (VCF) is the preferred movement of Local Group galaxies towards the Virgo cluster caused by its overwhelming gravity, which separates bound objects from the Hubble flow of cosmic expansion. The VCF can refer to the Local Group's movement towards the Virgo Supercluster,since its center is considered synonymous with the Virgo cluster, but more tedious to ascertain due to its much larger volume. The excess velocity of Local Group galaxies towards, and with respect to, the Virgo Cluster are 100 to 400 km/s.This excess velocity is referred to as each galaxy's peculiar velocity.
This 'excess velocity' means LG galaxies will overrun the Virgo cluster galaxies in that direction. In an expanding universe the more distant galaxies must be moving faster than those closer. With the VCF the 'excess velocity' is observed with those closer not further. This should not be with a uniform expansion.
This conundrum arose from cosmologists misusing absorption lines.
This confusion has a simple solution.
Absorption line shifts cannot be treated as the velocity of the distant object.
An absorption line in a galaxy spectrum occurs when the light passes through a gas where an atom can absorb a particular wavelength, defined by the element and its electron shells.
This atom can be anywhere in the light's path between source and observer.
The red shift from the neutral hydrogen is the usual absorption line used.
For a number of Local Group galaxies the shift in an absorption line from a calcium atom is used; this shift of this wavelength is always observed as a shift to blue (because the calcium atoms are moving tward the Milky Way).
Together, helium and hydrogen make up 99.9 percent of known matter in the universe. Even so, there is still about 10 times more hydrogen than helium in the universe.
Neutral hydrogen (NI) atoms are throughout intergalactic space but at a low density.
Both magellanic cloud galaxies are known to be surrounded by a cloud of NI.
As light passes through this diffuse NI in space its wavelength continues to shift to the red (longer). Before 1936 this hydrogen absorption line red shift was known to be proprtional to the distance to the galaxy. Cepheid variable stars were used to determine its distance.
Absorption lines should NEVER be treated as an object's velocity.
The justification for Hubble's Island is quickly observed in a small sample with the wrong velocities.
Vr= relative velocity in km/s, D2 = distance to, in Mpc
M31 Andromeda Vr=-301 D2= 0.76
M32 Vr=-205 D2= 0.76
M33 Vr=-181 D2= 0.79
SMC Vr=148 D2= 0.06
LMC Vr=+275 D2= 0.05
Sculptor Vr=+110 D2= 0.09
Close galaxies like SMC, LMC, Sculptor have high recession velocities.
Distant galaxies like M31, M32, M33 have high approach velocities.
That observed conflict was never questioned so the use of wrong velocities contined.
However all of those velocities are wrong.
The NI emission line wavelength shift does reflect the relative velocity of that individual atom. A galaxy has no emission lines.
The shift in the NI emision line provides the relative velocity of NI atoms in NI clouds in a spiral galaxy. The rotation is observed this way.
Theoretically, by analyzing the relative motion of many NI atoms the relative motion of all their gas clouds and hence the motion of the entire galaxy could be inferred.
Rotation curves online only show the rotation pattern but with no attempt at determining whether either more red or more blue determines an overall velocity in the data from those individual atoms. I expect the reason is the galaxy motion was already obtained from its NI absorption line.
I suspect this data are already gathered for M31 but are not conveniently available beyond the team analyzing that data.
As more distant galaxies were observed they had increasing red shift due to distance. These galaxies are being given wrong recession velocities.
This mistake with assuming large velocities from a large red shift by distance, not getting an actual velocity, draws into question using these NI red shifts as justification for an expanding universe.
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