Red Shift Distances Using Hubble Constant
the post headline: ' Sorry Astronomy fans, The Hubble Constant Isn't a Constant At All ' excerpt:
' “The fact that the Hubble expansion rate of the Universe changes over time teaches us that the expanding Universe isn’t a constant phenomenon. In fact, by measuring how that rate changes over time, we can learn what our Universe is made from: this was exactly how dark energy was first discovered.
But the “Hubble constant” itself is a misnomer. It has a value today that’s the same everywhere in the Universe, making it a constant in space, but it’s not a constant in time. In fact, so long as matter remains in our Universe, it will never become a constant, as increasing the volume will always make the density (and the expansion rate) decrease. ' my comment:
Hubble's Constant usage seems to vary among objects in Wikipedia with both an accepted distance and velocity. The H value is easily calculated with V / D. A small random sample reveals different H values are being used. A different H selection means this object's calculated distance is not consistent with others.
Astronomers claim Hubble's Law can translate a red shift into a distance but it appears astronomers use varying values of Hubble's Constant for different objects. This constant converts a velocity (in km/s) into distance (Mpc), where Distance = Velocity / H
From Wikipedia: ' The Hubble constant is about 70 (km/s)/Mpc.
More recent measurements from the Planck mission published in 2018 indicate a lower value of 67.66±0.42% although, even more recently, in March 2019, a higher value of 74.03±1.42% has been determined using an improved procedure involving the Hubble Space Telescope. The two measurements disagree at the 4.4sigma level, beyond a plausible level of chance. '
Astronomers must select an H value when a red shift value is obtained. Its value has been changing. There are no defined criteria for this selection of H.
Here are several objects with their red shift velocity and the accepted distance (data from Wikipedia), with the corresponding H value that was used for that 'published' combination. Sometimes Wikipedia has both Mly and Mpc or just one.
In the following: Z = red shift; V = km/s, D= Mpc
The exercise is: 1) calculate the H from the values provided 2) calculate the D with H = 72 (midpoint of 70 and 74) 3) calculate the D with the integer value of the calculated H This provides 3 values of D to compare.
accepted values of Z and D for M104 M104 Z = 0.003416 V = 1024 at D = 9.55 so from V/D H= 107.23
D calculated from Z: M104 Z = 0.003416 so V = 1024.8 with H = 72 then D = 14.23 M104 Z = 0.003416 so V = 1024.8 with H=107 then D = 9.58
M104 used a higher H than 'normal' 70 or the 'latest' 74. This results in a lower D value (9.55 from 14.23).
accepted values of Z and D for M60 M60 Z = 0.003726 V = 1108 at D = 17.8 so from V/D H= 62.25
D calculated from Z: M60 Z = 0.003726 so V = 1117.8 with H = 72 then D = 15.53 M60 Z = 0.003726 V = 1117.8 with H = 62 then D = 18.0
M60 used H lower than 'normal' 70 or the 'latest' 74. This results in a higher D value (17.8 from 15.53)
accepted values of V and D for Hoag's Object Hoag's Object V = 12740 at D = 187.9 so from V/D H= 67.8 D calculated from V: Hoag's Object V = 12740 with H=70 then D = 182.0
Hoag's Object used H near 'normal' 70 or the 'latest' 74.
accepted values of Z and D for Abell 133 Abell 133 Z = 0.00566 V = 16968 at D = 234 so from V/D H= 72.51
D calculated from Z: Abell 133 Z = 0.00566 V = 16968 with H = 72 then D = 235.83
Abell 133 used H higher than 'normal' 70 but lower than the 'latest' 74. This results in a lower D value (234 from 236).
accepted values, Z & D for 3C 273 3C 273 Z = 0.158339 so V = 47501.7 at D = 749 so from V/D H= 63.42
D calculated from Z: 3C 273 Z = 0.158339 so V = 47501.7 with H = 70 then D = 678.6 3C 273 Z = 0.158339 so V = 47501.7 with H = 63 then D = 754
3C 273 used H lower than 'normal' 70 or the 'latest' 74. This results in a higher D value (749 from 679).
accepted values, Z & D for NGC 67 NGC 67 Z = 0.020734 so V = 6220 at D = 84.3 so from V/D H= 73.77
D calculated from Z: NGC 67 Z = 0.020734 so V = 6220 with H = 70 then D = 88.9 NGC 67 Z = 0.020734 so V = 6220 with H = 73 then D = 85.2
NGC 67 used H higher than 'normal' 70 but almost the 'latest' 74. This results in a lower D value (84.6 from 89).
A sample of 6 found none to use 70, the accepted value according to Wikipedia. Even if Wikipedia has the wrong value for H these 6 in the sample do not use the same H value. Among the 6, the range in H: 63.42 (the most distant) to 107.23 (nearest)
This implies the H selection is affected by red shift value.
There are concerted efforts to take many measurements to find the most accurate value of H. This implies the H value is being adjusted, like in 2019, for particular red shift values.
This small sample indicates neither the accepted H value nor the latest H value are used consistently.
A consistent H selection would conform to a uniform expansion.
I did not continue checking further objects. A sample of 6 might be small but all used different H values.
Using different values of H obviously affects the published distance.
Anyone can do the simple V/D to see the H being used.
I expected to find one H value was being used consistently. That is not the case in this sample.
Perhaps this is quite trivial, for a nonuniform expansion but I expected consistency with critical values like Hubble's Constant.
< an additional comment not posted:
there is this: 'It has a value today that’s the same everywhere in the Universe, making it a constant in space, but it’s not a constant in time. ' but the same value is not used everywhere as shown above with a few examples.
end of this unposted comment. The FB group dislikes too much dissension.> >
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