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Milky Way Mountain Ranges

The headline:

Astronomers Baffled by 'Cosmic Mountain Ranges' Jutting Through the Milky Way

my comment:

The recent story about a star older than the universe is relevant here.

Robitaille and Crothers are working on a better explanation of stars evolving to another type. I hope the evolving LMHSM helps with this.

The current fusion model is messed up with assuming the distribution of elements follows a certain pattern. When their model does not follow reality they get confusing mixes of stars and ages.

from the story:
They found that the ridges more closely matched those created in isolated regions through an internal process called phase-mixing, in which groups of stars gradually mix, due to the morphing of the spiral arms over time. Furthermore, the presence of young stars, which haven't had as much time to scatter as older stars,  in the ridges also suggested a nearby force was the source for the features. In simulations of regions that had been gravitationally hit by a passing galaxy, the results showed much taller ridges than the ones seen in the Milky Way.
Simulations don't match.
they have an unexpected mix so there must be an known force. Fortunately it's not dark matter yet.

So the height of ridges "might be one way to discriminate between internal and external processes" 
Again there is no clue about the processes.

There are still some limitations, though. The researchers have yet to model gas in their simulation, which may affect the results.

Quite the problem!
 Research has found evidence that a nearby galaxy once passed through the Milky Way.

When nothing is understood, including no gas in the model, let's solve it with a galaxy collision!

Maybe I am too cynical but this is embarrassing.

I added this comment:

Two critical steps needed for this scenario:

1) a better understanding of stellar evolution.
That enables possible scenarios for observed mixes.

2) a better understanding of a galaxy spiral arms.

Other studies with Andromeda M31 observed the importance of the galactic magnetic field.
A study of IC342 spiral arms observed the importance of the magnetic fields within the spiral arms.

It takes time for old theories to be replaced with new, better theories. Getting rid of junk like dark matter will help, which inhibits progress.

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