Astronomers are able to view turbulence in the atmosphere of the red supergiant star Antares.
They are coordinating data from several instruments.
From the story:
The researchers have successfully measured both the radiation intensity, which is a measure of the gas distribution, and the gas velocity across the entire surface of Antares. "For the first time, we have succeeded in obtaining a two-dimensional map of the dynamics, that is, the motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun", explains Keiichi Ohnaka. The researchers made the observations using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) Interferometer. They linked three VLT telescopes and the AMBER instrument, thereby combining both interferometric and spectroscopic surveys. In their measurements, they determined the gas velocity using the displacement of spectral line frequencies resulting from the Doppler effect.
The research team is now developing the method to produce a three-dimensional visualization of the atmosphere: "If we obtain maps of the gas motions at different heights throughout the atmosphere, we can obtain a three-dimensional picture of how the gas is moving in the atmospheres of stars", explains Keiichi Ohnaka. Here, he and his colleagues aim to attain complete understanding of the mass loss process.
From the caption below an image:
Its irregular shape, with several bulges and the variable distribution of gas, indicate that the star only loses matter in some regions, and in fact in turbulent currents.
They are looking at 'doppler effect for displacement of spectral lines', to determine the relative motions of those atoms. The strength of the emission line implies quantity.
The 'currents' are probably plasma so this sounds like the solar wind.
The study is investigating the loss of mass from this star. I assume blue shifts are treated as atoms moving toward us or away from the star while red shifts are atoms moving toward the star.
When considering our Sun, there are two ways the Sun could appear to lose mass.
1. the solar wind is a stream of charged particles accelerating away from the Sun; this motion of plasma is driven by the solar electric field.
The solar wind:
The total number of particles carried away from the Sun by the solar wind is about 1.3 × 10^36 per second. Thus, the total mass loss each year is about (2–3) × 10^ −14 solar masses, or about (1.3–1.9) million tonnes per second. This is equivalent to losing a mass equal to the Earth every 150 million years.
2. Coronal mass ejections are explosions of material from the surface, perhaps caused by a collapsing double layer. The CME is observed to arc away, fall, and splash back down on the solar surface.
I do not know what is observed when atoms generate emission lines during their out and back journey during a CME.
Their analysis finds variations in the observed atomic motions. These are interpreted as turbulence.
The story does not offer details about the distribution of elements or velocities for the perceived turbulence.
I cannot tell whether their observations are helpful to the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen solar model often referenced in EUT. With all the details considered, I expect the data would help understand more about a red supergiant star.
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