Brown Dwarfs in Infrared
Infrared observations are critical for the search for brown dwarfs.
Attached is a presentation (> hour) about brown dwarfs.
There are many references to GPIES, The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey.
The Gemini Observatory consists of twin 8.1-meter diameter optical/infrared telescopes located on two of the best observing sites on the planet. From their locations on mountains in Hawai'i and Chile, Gemini Observatory's telescopes can collectively access the entire sky.
Objects with a mass above 13 x Jupiter are a brown dwarf. Objects lighter are a planet.
There are classes of brown dwarfs as dim stars based on their observed temperature.
The presentation assumes fusion is the internal power of large objects. With enough mass there is enough gravity to provide the pressure needed for fusion. For example, Jupiter's core does not have the pressure required for fusion so it is just a large planet.
The presentation describes the usual scenarios for stars and planets being formed ONLY by gravity from a gas or dust cloud; electromagnetic forces are never mentioned.
However, the description is still interesting. The proposal is the initial mass alone determines whether a star or planet results. There is a race whether a planet can grow in size before the star blows away the gas around the proto planet.
These 'gravity only' scenarios are far too simplistic but this is a start for considering an EUT alternative.
Stars unable to sustain fusion for visible light can be found with infrared. Whether it is a brown dwarf star or a planet is just the result of the observed temperature in infrared.
Jupiter emits in radio; this is never mentioned.
Saturn's rings can be observed in ultraviolet, a higher frequency than infrared and visible.
The Gemini combination of optical and infrared telescopes enables viewing a brown dwarf, or very large planet, in orbit around a visible star. The video shows several exoplanet observations by GPIES.
Infrared is critical for finding brown dwarfs, whether failed stars or large planets.
Earlier today, I posted about the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope.
The James Webb Space Telescope to be launched in 2021 will cover a wider range of infrared than Hubble.
I expect brown dwarfs will become a more frequent topic in astronomy.
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