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Globular Cluster Stars

Astronomers found one star moving too fast and the explanation is a stellar-sized black hole 'did it'.
The explanation by cosmologists is not credible.
This is an opportunity for my conjecture about stars in a globular cluster (GC).

From the story:


They noticed that this particular star was being flung back and forth so quickly (over 200,000 miles per hour) that it must be orbiting an invisible black hole at least four times as massive as the Sun.
“This could only be a black hole! The first one found in a globular cluster by directly observing its gravitational pull.”


my comment:
That claim cannot be justified. The GC stars are not moving by gravity.

For another perspective, a study of 91 Milky Way globular clusters was recently published (there is a deepskyvideo about that study - sausage globular clusters).

The video about sausage clusters references a paper titled 'THE ‘SAUSAGE’ GLOBULAR CLUSTERS'
I will call the paper SGC.

In its charts I noticed the range of radial velocities was -300 km/s to +300 km/s.
That converts to 11000 mph for a normal range.

MUSE is run by ESO their story about this star had this:

it is being flung backwards and forwards at speeds of several hundred thousand kilometres per hour, with the pattern repeating every 167 days.'

my comment:

That means each cycle in each direction (83.5 days) a star moves about 3.5 E6 km/cycle but the radius of the M75 GC is 67 light-years or 6.3E14 km.
The distance of this linear orbital cycle is relatively small compared to the M75 GC radius.

The velocity range in that study is about +/- 9000 mph.
Therefore the 200,000mph in the story  is a velocity 20x normal. It is less than in SGC.

To claim any velocity deviation is caused by gravity from a black hole is definitely NOT "directly observing its gravitational pull.” There must be another possible cause than an invisible fiction.
I must disagree with that black hole cause.

GC Stars are not moving as observed due to a gravitational field. The sphere of stars must collapse by gravity only cosmology. The globular cluster must have electromagnetic forces at play to cause the normal motion and also the anomaly.

Clearly cosmologists have no explanation for the normal GC periodic radial motion.
Gravity has no role in a GC star's motion so it quite silly to propose an invisible black hole is involved in an anomaly.

The following is a description of available data and my conjecture about stars in a GC to conclude. I won't call it a theory with so little data.

The online SGC does not have all the panels but enough for a little data. This study uses Gaia data providing details about individual stars; this new data enables studies like this. The study has extensive details about metallicity because the study was about determining the ages of the star. I will ignore that for now.

The study plotted motions of the stars relative to the Milky Way center (MWC). They determined the motions in 3 directions: 1) along a radius to MWC, 2) in rotation about MWC, and 3)  vertically relative to MWC; I will ignore (3).

excerpts from SGC between == :


Could this peculiarity of the data be due to a selection effect, against which the Gaia Collaboration et al. (2018) already caution? High energy GCs are more likely to be observed if they are on eccentric orbits.

my comment:

Apparently the orbits of the GCs around MWC are still being studied. I expect future studies will solve that with Gaia data.

Given that the β = 1 implies that all orbits are linear straight lines through the Galactic Centre, then the metal-rich local halo stars are very radially anisotropic.


my comment:

They confirm the stars have a radial orbit.
In the data in one panel the radial velocity was distributed between -300 and +300 km/s, while the the rotation velocity was distributed between -200 and +300 km/s, the vertical velocity was from -200 to +300.

For a separate reference about rotation: The M75 GC 'shows a slow rotation around an axis that is inclined along a position angle of −1530.'

my comment:
The study called the (2) velocities rotation but that term is misleading. This data set is motion perpendicular to the radial data set. This set is the motions across the GC relative to the MWC. This not rotation with the GC. Both have similar distributions indicating the stars in the GC are moving similarly regardless of their aspect to the MWC.

One conclusion:

All the GC stars are moving radially. A globular cluster rotates as a whole but with no data about a rate.

The rest of this post is long referencing many galaxies to support my conjecture.

My conjecture:

A globular cluster can be thought of as millions of spoked wheels sharing the same hub position at the core. The individual stars are moving in and out along their spoke, or their orbit. These individual radial orbits have a slight rotation which probably helps with congestion at the hub.

There must be an invisible structure, or an unknown behavior,  to contain this radial activity. The stars have an orbital period, not random motion.
GC stars are confined within a sphere though the stars near the outer edge have an inconsistent radius as the star density decreases.
I assume their orbits have an angular  distribution around the core with a distibution of the respective cycles along each radius. There are no data for these distributions.

Elliptical galaxies  appear very similar to GC but with many more stars. I cannot find an elliptical galaxy with a known rotation but I imagine it is impossible to resolve individual stars for galaxies too distant.


On June 20 I posted a link to some elliptical galaxies (EG) which appear to have a filamentary circular ring. Some of those are below.

Cartwheel Galaxy has a core at the center of a circular ring with a number of spokes, or apparent filaments.

galaxy cluster SDSS J0146-0929 has almost a complete circle around the EG.

Abell 383 has EG with a bright long arc at 4 o'clock ending with a node.

Abell S1063 has EG with several arcs.

Abell 2218 has impressive activity with multiple arcs around the large EG at left; EG near top right has filamentary arcs.

Abell 2390  has EGs with intense arcs in X-ray.

Abell 2667 EG has a large arc to its left with active nodes.

Abell 370 EG has large arc at 2 o'clock; the bottom of the arc has a node.

SDP.81 has EG inside almost a complete circle with a node inside the circle

LRG 3-757 - the horse shoe Einstein ring - almost a complete ring with intense nodes.

RCS2 032727-132623 EG has nearly a complete circle with active nodes.

J1531+3414 is galaxy cluster with double ellipticals at center of a very large diameter ring; EG at right has a jet at 2 o'clock but the jet is called a string of pearls.

Those few should be enough examples.

Clearly there is a pattern here.
Many EGs have a large diameter ring which is not always visible over the entire circumference. The ring is brighter with a brighter EG, sometimes the EG ring has active nodes.

Here is my conjecture with no way to test it.

There must be some unknown behavior or an underlying structure (a misleading term with electromagnetic forces) to contain the observed radial motions.
The ring contains the entire GC or EG sphere, though sometimes the ring has active nodes.
Inside the ring is a structure, or undefined behavior, for each star. The structure is like a wheel with spokes from hub to the rim; the stars move radially along their spoke within their orbit.  This invisible structure or undefined behavior  must be based on plasma which can be in arc mode or dark mode.
I cannot imagine the mechanism using electromagnetic forces to control the observed radial motions within the GC or EG sphere.
Unlike something always dark, I propose sometimes the ring around the sphere is visible, with a very large EG.
 Spokes are observed only in the Cartwheel Galaxy.

Please ignore this irrelevant comment which remains in the post. The quasar was explained in a later post so this comment is wrong.

Perhaps an irrelevant comment:

There is one other unexplained radial velocity in the universe. A quasar has a hydrogen atom emission line indicating the atom is moving (radially) toward the core at a relativistic velocity. These velocities appear quantized suggesting this motion is part of an electromagnetic circuit having particular characteristics that change incrementally. Either this radial motion has an inner limit or this is a particle accelerator hitting the core; which is unknown. If it has a limit at either end then it might stop by an undefined behavior like in a CG.

I believe this quasar mechanism has never been explained adequately.

This conjecture has no basis other than only observations. I cannot explain how the invisible structure within a ring works with even a partial explanation.

However, I find no alternate explanation for these radial motions in a gravity-only cosmology.

Maybe this invisible entity is totally ridiculous but I know it is only a conjecture. Someday there must be an explanation in EU.

This mechanism of electromagnetic forces maintaining a globular cluster is impressive.
Astronomers have determined the orbits for several Milky Way GC. The orbit is an ellipse with the ends above and below the galactic disk. These orbits take many years. Despite multiple passes by a sphere of millions of stars through a disk of billions of stars the GC sphere remains intact.
A youtube video titled 'The Saturn/Earth Connection and Our Place in the Universe | Space News' has a spiked wheel at about 25:27 suggesting a spiked wheel was observed around Saturn at the hub. Perhaps that is just a coincidence but its presence in the video suggests this 'entity' might have been observed on a planetary scale.
This post is something to think about, until something better comes along. 


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