Modern cosmology is broken simply because the cosmologists in this science forgot the extent the observer is needed to define how the universe is described. Without the observer performing their necessary role, no behaviors in the universe can be described and measured correctly.
The attempt by cosmology to use Einstein's spacetime as an object in the universe is not possible, though tests are contrived to make it seem valid. Below is why spacetime cannot work as claimed.
An observer of the universe (OU) located anywhere in the universe will see things in their visible space.
OU must select a geometry to enable describing the position of any object. The geometry provides the defined dimensions, their scaling, and their relationship. One simple (Euclidean) geometry is 3 perpendicular planes for right& left, up & down, in & out, with each often measured in meters. For convenience these dimensions are usually given the letters X, Y, Z. The last step is assigning a reference position for each dimension. A simple case is assigning the lower left corner of the working space as X0, Y0, Z0. A simple variation is X0 at the exact middle of right & left so the X value is the measured distance from the middle (+ or -) rather than from the corner.
OU must select a fixed point in his view to reference the respective dimensions.
This simple geometry works for an OU anywhere.
For all OU located on Earth, mankind created the Global Positioning System (GPS) where two dimensions are perpendicular planes (latitude, longitude) and a third dimension is the elevation. Each dimension has a fixed reference (equator, prime meridian, sea level) so the GPS geometry works for an OU anywhere on Earth for describing a location anywhere near Earth.
The Theory of Relativity (TOR) was the result of work by Einstein and many before and after.
TOR defines an observer based 4-D geometry. TOR is a background independent (or coordinate-free) theory meaning the observer never makes an assignment of this geometry to a coordinate position in space.
TOR has several wrong assumptions:
1) Instead of all OU using the same time (as our world does now) each OU in motion has their own time which may or may not count at the same rate as all the others.
2) Assumed mass cannot move faster than light. A quasar hydrogen atom red shift > c proved this wrong in the 1960's.
3) Assumed only gravity affects motion from a distance.
After Isaac Newton until late 1800's, everyone believed this. However after around 1850 Coulomb, Faraday, Maxwell, and others defined electric and magnetic fields and how the forces of these fields affect the motion of charged particles. Relativity uses only gravity.
These electromagnetic forces are critical in the universe where nearly all matter is charged, or ionized.
4) TOR described spacetime curvature as a distortion in the geometry for an accelerating observer. This is a limited scope.
TOR defined a geometry for an observer in accelerating motion, or an AO. This geometry called spacetime has 4 linear dimensions with the AO providing inputs to the geometry transformation as change-x, change-y, change-z, and change-ct (where c is the velocity of light and so when multiplied by the change in AO's current time the result is in meters). As the motion of the AO encounters a gravitational field, the AO spacetime geometry gets a curve based on only the strength of the field. The motion of the AO is assumed to follow their distorted geometry.
After developing this spacetime concept, Einstein, Eddington, and others worked on applying it to the universe. I will call this the universe's spacetime or UST, to distinguish it from the AO's spacetime (defined by Special Relativity).
The big bang cosmology proposes this UST was created at the big bang event when objects were created in the space to be described by this geometry. This UST geometry could now have a defined topology where the geometry could have behaviors and limits based on the density of mass and energy enclosed in this geometry.
1) spacetime is not a thing. It is just a 4-D geometry.
This is like saying a map was created for the universe with the big bang.
2) there is no meaning in saying the universe has a geometry unless the geometry is referenced to a physical point in the real universe to be usable by all observers.
This assignment is impossible in an infinite universe because an observer cannot pick such a fixed point.
A crude example is 'the universe X0,Y0,Z0 is right 'there' and the planes are defined like this' but such a definition is impossible with no possible 'there' known to be a permanently fixed position in the universe.
UST cannot be anchored to the real universe.
A geometry is only a framework for an observer to describe locations in their visible, measurable space for any objects at rest or in motion.
Objects move in space affected by external forces. Objects do not move based on any observer's selected geometry. A geometry is never involved in any motion unless an observer on the object is using the geometry to describe a position for the intended motion.
The perceived expanding universe is managed by cosmologists by stretching its UST dimensions with a rate increasing with time so distant objects would have their positions described differently. This is odd, rather than explaining the observed position.
The UST requires an observer locate where the UST fabric, with its Hubble Island separate from the Hubble Flow, is located in the universe. Right now it is located only by using an observer on Earth.
Cosmologists claim the expanding universe is expanding away from the Earth at the center of the universe.
However this expansion is being managed in the geometry so measured distances are adjusted by changing the scaling. Changing a geometry does not change a position, only its description.
The Earth is not really the center of the universe but cosmologists have placed Earth exactly there by interpreting red shifts wrong.
This UST is assumed to apply curvature around all masses in the universe without having an AO present needed for the correct curvature calculation based on AO motion. This remote observation is not possible using TOR.
This is also wrong because a geometry describes positions. Light moves in space; light does not follow an observer's geometry.
Light always maintains direction and velocity unless refracting in a medium, resulting in slowing and/or bending. Now cosmologists using UST assume light will follow a curved geometry around a mass. They also assume remote objects are affected by a distorted geometry. These remote behaviors are not possible.
This is terrible confusion between a description of space (in a geometry) and the space being described.
There is a common saying 'Spacetime tells matter how to move; matter tells spacetime how to curve.'
This saying, revealing a profound misunderstanding of a geometry, has disturbed me since learning its context.
Every object in the universe does not have an observer defining its current motion like 'move X+2 Y-3' just so this motion using coordinates in this geometry can follow a curved path. Wrong!
Objects in the universe do not move according to a geometry.
All objects are moving subject to the forces acting on them.
Spacetime can offer guidance to only the AO, as defined by TOR, nothing else.
Spacetime does NOT tell matter how to move.
The cosmological model for the universe has the same error (3). Dark matter arose because the model ignores magnetic fields which is the primary driver of a spiral galaxy rotation.
Dark energy arose because the UST enabled cosmologists proposing geometry changes to solve observations which were difficult to explain.
Electric Universe theory uses all three primary fields affecting motion: gravity, electric, and magnetic.
Cosmology without UST must use the observer to describe the physical universe.
All OU on Earth can use the spherical celestial coordinate system using two perpendicular planes (with an offset for position of the OU relative to the center of the Earth) and a distance allowing a location description for all objects in the observable universe. I expect every space probe also does this.
Each OU can make direct position measurements with a stable geometry with consistent results.
Spacetime is a complicated subject but hopefully this simplified view explains the problem created by cosmologists.
Spacetime cannot be used for such observations as a distant curvature, with a black hole as a blatant mistake.
I added this to the EUT post (between ==):
Another observation about 'Spacetime tells matter how to move'
This saying has 2 disturbing interpretations:
1) Matter moves according to a coordinate system.
2) Matter does not move due to external forces.
For (1), this is like a shepherd defining a coordinate system for his field and expecting the sheep to follow the coordinates, perhaps staying within a geometric circle or rectangle.
The sheep behave as affected by their environment, not their coordinates.
For (2), this means matter moves according to an underlying fabric of space, unaffected by external forces.
The universe certainly does not work this way, External forces affect all motion, of the observer or any object.
From one group there were several comments suggesting I interpreted relativity wrong.
I added this comment to the post to both facebook groups:
I will explain my interpretation of spacetime. Special Relativity defined spacetime as a 4 dimensional coordinate system. The 'special' is an accelerating observer. This spacetime could be curved as the observer passed a gravitational field. Spacetime is this observer's reference frame so it is not a real thing. The real things are the observer and the other object with its gravity.
General Relativity defined two reference frames: inertial and non-inertial. Non-inertial is the same as accelerating so in General Relativity (GR) spacetime is the non-inertial observer's reference frame. In GR spacetime is still just the accelerating observer's reference frame whose 4-D coordinate system can be curved by a gravitational field. In GR spacetime is not a real thing.
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