Reformation of Cosmology Step 1
The reformation of modern cosmology will require many steps but the first is obvious:
Get rid of everything named dark and black.
Even their names suggest they are hidden and not understood.
Dark matter is proposed because electromagnetic forces are ignored.
Recently a study of M31 revealed adding the known M31 magnetic field to their model matched the rotation curve so there is no need for dark matter for that.
Recently a study of IC342 revealed the magnetic fields detected in the spiral arms were responsible for their structure so there is no need for dark matter for that.
Some physicists already know about disposing of dark matter but it persists.
The following data clearly show the cause of the mistake called dark energy.
RV = relative velocity
DC = distance using Cepheids
DS = distance using hydrogen absorption or emission line shift
4 galaxies in the Local Group:
LMC RV = 158 km/s DS= 2.26 Mly, DC = 0.16 Mly
SMC RV = 275 km/s DS= 3.93 Mly, DC = 200 kly or 0.02 Mly
M31 RV = −301 km/s DS= negative, DC = 2.54 Mly
M33 RV= -179 km/s DS= negative, DC = 2.72 Mly
From Wikipedia list of large red shifts:
First 2 are galaxies, 3rd is quasar
GN-z11 RV= z=11.09, DS=155,018 Mly or 155 Bly, DC=n/a
EGSY8p7 RV= z=8.68, DS=121,331 Mly or 121 Bly, DC=n/a
ULAS J1120+0641 RV=z=7.085, DS=99,036 Mly or 99 Bly, DC=n/a
z=7.085 = 2,125,500 km/s
Such ridiculous velocities and distances are accepted and the result of that mistake is the expanding universe.
A red shift showing a distance of 155 Bly or a distance comparison of 0.02 Mly vs 3.9 Mly are accepted despite their glaring discrepancy from what can be explained. One would think someone concerned with validity would question the assumptions for these conclusions.
Astronomers attempt a partial explanation of these extreme distances by proposing part of the distance comes from the expanding fabric of space time. This results in a calculated comoving proper distance:
" GN-z11 has a spectroscopic redshift of z = 11.09, which corresponds to a proper distance of approximately 32 billion light-years (9.8 billion parsecs). "
These extremes in velocities and distances are the result of using hydrogen absorption and emission lines as the velocity of the object behind the atom.
This is clearly a mistake and should have been recognized long ago.
A black hole was a theoretical deformation in an accelerating observer's reference frame.
A black hole is not a physical thing.
Decisions were made in the 1920's and the dogma cannot be disturbed, even after 100 years.
The universe is not expanding and there is no dark energy which is the feeble explanation for the mistakes shown above. There is no dark matter and there are no black holes.
After step 1, cosmology can work towards understanding the universe rather than excusing a current lack of understanding by proposing solutions with black and dark mistakes.
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