Measuring a Galaxy's Velocity
All galaxies in the universe have been given a wrong velocity.
This mistake should have been fixed in 1923 but it was not.
A strong direct relationship between a Cepheid variable's luminosity and pulsation period established Cepheids as important indicators of cosmic benchmarks for scaling galactic and extragalactic distances. This robust characteristic of classical Cepheids was discovered in 1908 by Henrietta Swan Leavitt after studying thousands of variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds.
In 1923 Hubble observed a Cepheid variable star, VAR!, in the M31 galaxy. This finding enabled using Cepheid stars to calculate the distance to M31 by using a star's luminocity dimming by distance rather than by using an atom's red shift.
At this point, Cepheid variable stars were more reliable than a red shift.
The sport of baseball is popular here. A radar gun is a reliable device to measure the velocity of a thrown ball.
Everyone knows the measured velocity of the ball is not the velocity of the person throwing the ball.
Cosmology uses a very unreliable tool to measure an atom's velocity and then makes the mistake of using this calculated value for a galaxy's velocity.
Absorption lines and emission lines are from intervening atoms and are never certain to be physically part of the object in their line of sight so they should never be treated as the velocity of the object behind the atom.
Nearly all galaxies in the universe have their velocity measured by the shift in one absorption line, the neutral hydrogen atom's Lyman-alpha wavelength at 1215.66824 Angstroms or 121.6 nm.
Unfortunately this shift is not reliable because there are neutral hydrogen atoms at a very low density in the intergalactic medium. More atoms encountered in the light's path result in a greater red shift. Both Magellanic Clouds are known to be surrounded by hydrogen gas clouds resulting in a higher red shift so they have a higher velocity.
Here is a demonstration of the problem of misusing red shifts by showing actual values from Wikipedia.
RV = relative velocity by hydrogen atom absorption line shift
DC = distance using Cepheids
DS = distance using H absorption line shift
2 galaxies in the Local Group:
LMC RV = 158 km/s DS= 4.3 Mly, DC = 0.16 Mly
SMC RV = 275 km/s DS= 3.93 Mly, DC = 200 kly or 0.02 Mly
The Wikipedia list of large red shifts has these 2 galaxies:
GN-z11 RV= z=11.09, DS=155,018 Mly or 155 Bly, DC=n/a
EGSY8p7 RV= z=8.68, DS=121,331 Mly or 121 Bly, DC=n/a
z=11.09 = 3,327,000 km/s
z=8.68 = 2,604,000 km/s
These calculated RV values are published and remain unquestioned.
Cosmologists do not publish the above calculated DS values for extreme red shifts. Instead they hide them and make an adjustment based on the assumed expanding fabric of space:
" GN-z11 has a spectroscopic redshift of z = 11.09, which corresponds to a [comoving] proper distance of approximately 32 billion light-years. "
Such ridiculous velocities and distances are accepted even after an adjustment and the result of that mistake is the expanding universe.
A noticeable distance difference of 0.16 Mly vs 4.3 Mly for LMC is blindly accepted. This obvious mistake remains uncorrected.
These calculated velocities are clearly wrong. The force required for the GN-z11 galaxy to be moving > 11 x c should be incredible but its z value has been accepted.
Cosmology is incapable of fixing itself.
The calculated velocities and distances based on the hydrogen atom are clearly a mistake. However it is still impossible to correct this mistake after almost 100 years.
Much research has been based on this mistake.
The universe is not expanding and there is no dark energy which is the feeble explanation for the mistakes shown above where atrocious velocities cannot be explained without proposing something dark.
For better distance measurements, a metric in the object must be used not intervening atoms.
Cepheid variable stars have a limited range and have a significant margin of error.
Supernova type IA are used if one is lucky to observe one but they also have a margin of error.
Unfortunately its calculation is now checked against the galaxy's red shift so the result of that mistake is claimed superbright supernovae are observed when using a wrong distance for the check. The 1998 study of supernovae adjusted the light curve of suprernovae in 'high red shift' galaxies rather than accepting the observed light curve for a direct calculation.
The expanding universe is unquestioned so it even affects using supernovae for a standard candle.
Cosmology is hampered by limited tools to avoid the current use of atoms.
Cosmology will not reconsider wrong assumptions even after 100 years.
In the meantime we have bad data and undefined dark energy (at 68% of the energy in the universe!).
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