Spheres of stars
There are several types of observed spheres of stars: globular clusters (GC) and elliptical galaxies (EG). The giant elliptical galaxies (GEG) sometimes exhibit a unique feature. The simple method of defining a general type is the estimated number of stars in the sphere with the cluster having the least and the giant having the most. A GC can be found associated with any type of galaxy. Nearly every large galaxy cluster has a GEG.
This post is mostly about spheres of stars but there is also a connection with Safire.
For reference (only estimates; all star counts must be guesses):
Milky Way spiral galaxy (SG) has 200-400 billion stars in diameter 100 kly, and 150 GC
M31 SG has 1 trillion stars in diameter of 220 kly
Mayall II is the brightest GC at M31 with several million stars in diameter of 42 ly.
The next 4 GC are near Milky Way.
Omega Centauri GC has 10 million stars in diameter of 150 ly
M10 GC has 200,000 stars in diameter of 83 ly
M13 CG has 600,000 stars in diameter of 168 ly
M80 GC has hundreds of thousands of stars in diameter of 96 ly
M87 super GEG has > trillion stars in diameter of 980 kly and has 12,000 GC
M84 EG has few details except 1775 GC
IC1101 super GEG has 100 trillion stars in diameter of 4 mly
rough estimates (suggesting the guesses are off):
M10 density = 0.084 stars / ly^3
M13 density = 0.242 stars / ly^3
IC1101 density = 3E-6 stars / ly^3
M87 density = 3E-4 stars / ly^3
M80 density = 0.6 stars / ly^3 (too high?)
Omega Centauri density = 0.7 stars / ly^3 (too high?)
Milky Way disk density = 4E-6 stars / ly^3
M77 is a Seyfert SG and called the brightest seyfert galaxy.
M77 has 1 trillion stars in diameter of 100 kly
M10 GC has an elliptical orbit taking it through the galactic disk. Though this sphere of 200k stars passes through a disk of > 200m stars the M10 sphere is maintained even after multiple passes. The stars in the disk probably have enough separation but some interaction should be expected.
These spheres of stars must be coherent plasma-magnetic entities (what the term plasmoid refers to) because gravity alone cannot explain their cohesion or the radial motion of their stars.
Wikipedia reference for a plasmoid in a GC ===
Astronomers have searched for black holes within globular clusters since the 1970s. The resolution requirements for this task, however, are exacting, and it is only with the Hubble Space Telescope that the first confirmed discoveries have been made. In independent programs, a 4,000 solar-mass intermediate-mass black hole has been suggested to exist based on HST observations in the globular cluster M15 and a 20,000 solar-mass black hole in the Mayall II cluster in the Andromeda Galaxy. Both x-ray and radio emissions from Mayall II appear to be consistent with an intermediate-mass black hole.
My comment: Any reference in the above to black hole means plasmoid (like in M87) which emits from X-ray to radio.
M87 and other EG (post on October 3) established a plasmoid at an EG core. It is reasonable to conclude a plasmoid is at each GC core.
It is also reasonable to call a sphere of stars a plasma sphere. The sphere has many stars in motion (positive charged objects) with an invisible electric current for each electric sun.
The sphere of stars does not rotate and is held together by electrodynamics with positive charged stars (each an electric sun) moving radially generating local magnetic fields and so the sphere is a complex mechanism of interacting electric and magnetic fields. That mechanism within a sphere is a separate topic.
Several GEG exhibit a unique feature. When in a very large galaxy cluster sometimes the central GEG will have a ring or arcs as part of a ring.
SDSS J0146-0929 - nearly a complete ring but the arcs have structure (cannot be a lens)
Abell 383 - GEG arc spans 90 degrees with structure.
Abell 2218 - the GEG arcs have structure.
SDSS J103842.59+484917.7 - also known as the Cheshire Cat
This pair of GEG has several complex arcs having their radius from the midpoint between the two GEG.
It is important to note these arcs maintain a radius; they are not random in shape. Often the arcs have structure.
A combination is suggested here: 1) a GEG with a much higher star count and 2) the GEG is within a large electrically active galaxy cluster. The result is the GEG develops a double layer (for charge separation around the GEG) at a radius from the center of the GEG. This double layer might not be visible for the entire circumference.
Many EG and GEG do not satisfy both conditions.
These arcs are definitely not from lensing or diffraction so this is a better explanation.
Another topic though related: Explaining the huge quantities of stars!
I have great difficulty believing every GC or galaxy achieved their high star count and structure from just clumping in a cloud of dust and gas.
There must be a mechanism for creating stars in a GC or in a galaxy. Otherwise a galaxy is essentially dead after clumping most of the initial clouds into the initial brood of stars.
Every GC is at a distance with no bridge to its relatively nearby galaxy. It should be impossible to accumulate a trillion stars from just the original huge cloud or the IGM.
For a GC to just accumulate so many stars from either the IGM or the nearby galaxy is an awkward explanation.
Both the fusion model and black holes consume matter. The LMHSM does not.
1) Halton Arp observed quasars in pairs apparently ejected from a Seyfert (M77 was an example above) between them.
This implies its energetic Z-pinch at the SG core is probably creating matter. In the universe the creation of matter consists of proton - electron pairs. Hydrogen is the basis of every star and so everything made up of stars.
2) on September 26 I posted about possible plasmoids (X-ray point sources) in a spiral galaxy arms.
3) on October 1 I posted about possible plasmoids (remote X-ray point sources) ejected from a distorted galaxy called Medusa.
4) on October 10 I posted about hundreds of possible plasmoids (remote X-ray point sources) ejected from a 'star burst galaxy M82.'
5) on October 15 I posted about a plasmoid (remote X-ray point sources) ejected from a GEG in a large galaxy cluster.
A possible conclusion from these observations:
Some galaxies appear to have ejected plasmoids.
I suspect those new born plasmoids will 'grow up' some day. That they persist implies they do not just wilt and die.
An energetic plasmoid might create hydrogen atoms which can become stars enabling the plasmoid to grow and become a GC or EG. If this is true this mechanism probably increases its rate as more stars provide an environment which is more energetic.
This potential explains how a GC in the near vacuum of intergalactic space can grow from a plasmoid to become a sphere with thousands of stars or even a million.
in the case of a Seyfert the very energetic Z-pinch can create hydrogen atoms which can become stars. The Seyfert core also has a mechanism to eject a plasmoid which is the core of a quasar.
I vaguely recall someone proposing a mechanism for a plasmoid to transform into a birkelund current pair. I cannot find that. That is a separate topic.
There are observations without complete explanations.
The Safire project observed elements on or near their electric sun which were not present at the start.
This observation implies a connection between extreme electrical activity and matter. Safire project continues.
Maybe there is enough matter in the universe with so much unseen in the IGM but regardless of how much is claimed there I have the suspicion it is not enough for the observed star counts.
The above covers all the observations of the CG, EG, GEG. I have an alternate explanation for the ring or arcs around a GEG. That was here to cover that feature.
The alternative is suggested by the Tesla invention, a plasma globe or plasma sphere. That device has a metallic globe in the middle of a glass globe which was filled with a gas like neon. When the central globe is electrically excited with an AC current there are electrical discharges seen as filaments between the inner globe and the glass sphere which is just an insulator. These electrical discharges are almost a current loop from the central globe to the glass sphere which is an insulator, not part of the electrical behavior.
The alternative for a sphere of stars:
Each sphere is enclosed by a plasma filament in dark mode forming a plasma sphere. This plasma filament then defines the limit of the stellar motion in the sphere; these stars move radially and this spherical filament defines the path of the stars with the inner limit at the central plasmoid. With the GEG sometimes portions of this spherical filament are visible. In this scenario the GEG has more stars so its spherical filament is carrying more current making it more likely to switch to a visible mode.
Until the electrodynamics can be defined for a sphere of stars this spherical filament surrounding all the stars in the shape of a sphere is just a guess.
I cannot find research into the plasma entity of a sphere of stars. I offer this as a start.
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