Correct 4 Dimensional Universe
We are told ad nauseum we live in a 4-dimensional universe.
Unfortunately these 4 are wrong.
This proposal is a better 4-dimensional universe.
We are told spacetime defines or describes our universe.
Spacetime is a 4-dimensional coordinate system with 3 linear coordinates and 1 time coordinate.
It is easy to say these 4 dimensions have never been used for a celestial observation in the entire history of mankind.
Spacetime does not apply to observing our universe.
I posted about this spacetime problem this several weeks ago, titled: Observer's Universe.
A better approach was initially described over 2000 years ago.
Hipparchus c. 190 – c. 120 bc) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry.
Hipparchus is credited with the invention or improvement of several astronomical instruments, which were used for a long time for naked-eye observations. According to Synesius of Ptolemais (4th century) he made the first astrolabion: this may have been an armillary sphere (which Ptolemy however says he constructed; or the predecessor of the planar instrument called astrolabe (also mentioned by Theon of Alexandria). With an astrolabe Hipparchus was the first to be able to measure the geographical latitude and time by observing fixed stars.
Hipparchus also observed solar equinoxes, which may be done with an equatorial ring: its shadow falls on itself when the Sun is on the equator (i.e., in one of the equinoctial points on the ecliptic), but the shadow falls above or below the opposite side of the ring when the Sun is south or north of the equator. Ptolemy quotes a description by Hipparchus of an equatorial ring in Alexandria; he [also] describes two such instruments present in Alexandria in his own time.
Hipparchos laid the foundation for the celestial coordinate system in use today, with its basis in his equatorial ring.
With the daily rotation of the Earth the universe is observed as a sphere by everyone so spherical coordinates are correct, not linear coordinates.
All astronomers use the 2-dimensional celestial coordinate system, 1) an angular value for right ascension (RA) based on an equatorial ring and 2) an angular value for declination (Dec) which is the angular distance from the equator.
The better 4-dimensional system:
1) the object's measured RA position
2) the object's measured Dec position
3) the time of this position measurement.
4) the distance to this object, obtained by other observations.
With this 4-D system every object in the observable universe can have its current position described at the time of the observation.
Time is included in the 4 because a time measurement is required to measure motion of an object by changes in its measured position over time.
Spacetime is wrong for astronomy and cosmology simply because by the design of the mathematical model we call relativity:
Spacetime is the accelerating observer's transient frame of reference.
The values in the 4 dimensions are used in the relativity equations as change-x, change-y, change-z, change-t.
Spacetime is for only the non-inertial observer. Spacetime has nothing to do with the observable universe. Its 4 dimensions are never used for observations other than as possibly noting incremental changes.
Observations begin with the current measured positions. Changes come from calculations not the observation.
When astronomers and cosmologists use the correct 4- dimensional system while observing the universe mistakes can be avoided.
Spacetime is just wrong for the universe.
Spacetime is not real. Any 4 dimensional coordinate system can never be real.
Believing it to be real allows fictional concepts to arise including black holes and the expanding fabric of soacetime.
Replacing spacetime with a better 4-D system will lead to a better cosmology.
We should also stop getting fictional stories about a multi-dimensional universe.
The universe has no dimensions. The observer defines the coordinate system for their observations.
The simple 3-D Euclidean geometry is always a convenient system for local observations and measurements, like in a lab.
It is not appropriate when observing the universe.
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