I have posted about redshifts many times.
The word redshift is used loosely resulting in confusion.
I put my interpretation of redshifts in the format of a research paper with links to all references.
I have read Seeing Red by Arp, Big Bang Never Happened by Lerner, and other works (like Peratt), and consistently the galaxy and quasar velocities and distances are accepted without question. That is such a mistake.
Either a galaxy redshift or quasar redshift is certainly never its velocity. Any conclusions based on that redshift or its wrong velocity are also wrong, like its distance.
There is no universe expansion, another mistake based on the redshift mistake.
After recognizing this redshift mistake, all galaxies and quasars are not moving as claimed nor are they at their claimed distance.
The exceptions are when a redshift is ignored - those galaxies with a distance roughly calculated using Cepheids not redshift; these using Cepheids include all the blue shift galaxies (whose negative velocities must be ignored) and the Magellanic Clouds.
Blindly accepting redshifts without question has resulted in many mistakes.
There are some looking for other explanations for all galaxies and quasars having redshifts but those efforts are misdirected by the assumption these redshifts are actually valid.
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There were several questions so I offered more information in a reply with this:
Doppler effect is the effect on light transmission due to the light source in motion, just like sound waves.
This is my interpretation. This is not from a reference.
When the light source is in motion and emits light the velocity of light's propagation cannot change.
instead some of the kinetic energy of the source is exchanged with the light frequency.
The energy in light is proportional to its frequency.
Light emitted in the direction of motion gets an increase in energy by an increase in frequency or a blue shift.
Light emitted in the opposite direction of motion loses some energy by an decrease in frequency or a red shift.
A blue shift or red shift can occur only at the moment of emission when the light source kinetic energy is available for an energy transfer. A light emission from no motion cannot shift.
A blue shift or red shift at any other time is a change in light's energy, a violation of thermodynamics because the energy transfer is undefined.
A blue or red shift in an absorption line is meaningless (other than it indicates that element in the line of sight) for indicating motion because it is a missing wavelength so there is no energy involved from any motion.
The hydrogen absorption line is the one always used for galaxy red shifts and it is affected by hydrogen atoms in the line of sight so it is used wrong for a second reason.
None of this involves a location in the universe.
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