EU for Dummies
This is an initial attempt at a 'dumbed down' description of EU.
The term 'dummies' is often used for a simpler description of something. The reader is expected to consult another document for the extensive details, after learning the basics for a limited understanding of this something.
This attempt is probably still too technical. (I removed some) There must be enough initial detail to consider evaluating the entire cosmology. Even the topic selection is debatable. This attempt has the Sun as the main topic, being known by everyone. The black hole is the second topic.
Many know when anything gets hot the matter loses one or more electrons and become ionized.
Everything that is ionized or has an electrical charge is in the 4th state of matter called plasma.
Nearly everything in the universe is plasma with the amount having many 9's, like the accepted 99.999%.
Plasma behaves differently than the other states of matter, like gas, liquid, or solid (or the man-made Bose-Einstein condensates).
Plasma particles can naturally form filaments because they can flow together in a stream. The word plasma was used for this behavior because it seemed similar to blood flow, by Irving Langmuir around 1850.
In 1970 Hannes Alfven was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for describing the new science of plasma physics.
With nearly the entire universe as plasma, plasma physics is critical for cosmology.
An electrical charge exerts an electric field.
Moving electrical charges are an electric current and an electric current generates a magnetic field.
Visible light is part of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation which is synchronized electric and magnetic fields. These synchronized fields continue to propagate from their source at a velocity measured as the value called the constant c.
A different part of the spectrum is called infrared which we cannot see but feel as heat.
Another part of the spectrum is called X-ray which we cannot see but is used in an X-ray device for a medical observation.
Our eyes can see light but cannot see an electric or a magnetic field.
However, these fields exert a force on charged particles (or plasma) so their effects can be observed and devices can measure these fields.
As a result, the universe has much which can be seen but there are many forces which cannot be seen.
The Electric universe describes the universe in a manner unlike popular cosmology by recognizing these electromagnetic forces and the plasma behaviors.
The first topic to describe is our Sun. Other topics can be added to a longer version of this simplified EU description.
Hannes Alfven observed in galaxies an electrical behavior called the Alfven circuit.
EU scientists have recognized this Alfven circuit applies to our Sun, so it has been called the Electric Sun.
Here is a popular description of the Sun, later followed by the Electric Sun description.
In the popular cosmology, from Wikipedia:
The Sun is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.
Roughly three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (73%); the rest is mostly helium (25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron.
The Sun formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System. The central mass became so hot and dense that it eventually initiated nuclear fusion in its core. It is thought that almost all stars form by this process.
The Sun currently fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result. This energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape from its core, is the source of the Sun's light and heat. When hydrogen fusion in its core has diminished to the point at which the Sun is no longer in hydrostatic equilibrium, its core will undergo a marked increase in density and temperature while its outer layers expand, eventually transforming the Sun into a red giant. It is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and Venus, and render Earth uninhabitable - but not for about five billion years. After this, it will shed its outer layers and become a dense type of cooling star known as a white dwarf, and no longer produce energy by fusion, but still glow and give off heat from its previous fusion.
The gravitational collapse of plasma in this gaseous sphere has resulted in the tremendous temperatures and pressures in the core to initiate fusion. The core is converting matter into energy.
Some decades ago, we witnessed the detonation of the hydrogen bomb, a weapon which was literally an explosion inside another explosion.
A fusion explosion begins with the detonation of the fission primary stage. Its temperature soars past approximately one hundred million kelvins, causing it to glow intensely with thermal X-radiation. These X-rays flood the void (the "radiation channel" often filled with polystyrene foam) between the primary and secondary assemblies placed within an enclosure called a radiation case, which confines the X-ray energy and resists its outward pressure. The distance separating the two assemblies ensures that debris fragments from the fission primary cannot disassemble the secondary before the fusion explosion runs to completion.
Fusion is an inherently unstable process. It requires extreme temperatures (100 million Kelvin) at an extreme sustained pressure for fusion to begin and continue.
This fusion is also converting matter into energy so the fuel is being consumed and lost. This has been sustained for 4 billion years.
The fusion continues with the inward pressure of the gravitational collapse of the outer layers toward this diminishing core. The heat in the core is driving an outward pressure because the core should increase its volume (by thermal expansion).
When the fuel in the core diminishes too much where the fusion energy being generated cannot drive a volume to balance against the inward pressure of a gravitational collapse, the loss of equilibrium disrupts the sustained cycle. The popular description has the core collapsing first to increase in both temperature and density (a decrease in volume) but resulting in outer layer expansion.
This description of the loss of equilibrium is not coherent when the core density increases (a smaller volume) as the outer layers expand. Apparently the pressure from the core's increased radiation is the force for the outer layer expansion. 'Pressure' from just radiation is likely incapable of the force required by this scenario of outward expansion.
Note: In the hydrogen bomb sequence the extremes of pressure and temperature for fusion are present only during the fission explosion which cannot be sustained for long, because that is an explosion.
Fusion reactors strive for the extreme temperature to achieve fusion using electromagnetic forces for containment. This is not the same scenario of hydrostatic equilibrium between opposing pressures (one being gravitational collapse) in the Sun around its core where fusion occurs.
The Electric Sun ...
Though the popular description of the Sun 'observes' the same Sun as the Electric Sun, each mechanism is completely different.
First, the Sun clearly has a surface. We see its rotation by the visible sunspots in motion.
Solar rotation varies with latitude. The Sun is not a solid body, but is composed of a gaseous plasma. Different latitudes rotate at different periods (differential rotation). The source of this differential rotation is an area of current research in solar astronomy. The rate of surface rotation is observed to be the fastest at the equator (latitude = 0°) and to decrease as latitude increases. The solar rotation period is 24.47 days at the equator and almost 38 days at the poles.
The solar surface, with this differential rotation, is liquid. not solid or gas (but it is plasma).
The source of this rotation is being investigated because the Sun is not a gas.
Nearly all of the Sun is in the state of condensed matter where the atoms are held together by electromagnetic forces, not molecular bonds. Technically, condensed matter is another state of matter. In the Electric Sun this configuration of condensed matter with hydrogen atoms is called liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH). This condensed matter changes its lattice structure at different temperatures and pressures.
Helioseismology has found different layers within the Sun including a solid core. These respective layers have different densities with LMH lattice configurations.
LMH is electrically conductive. The Sun has numerous internal electric currents associated with magnetic fields. These currents are part of this solar Alfven circuit.
The phenomena observed on the Sun's surface like sunspots are objects driven by electromagnetic behaviors.
The phenomena observed above the Sun's surface like coronal mass ejections, solar flares, and solar wind are objects driven by electromagnetic behaviors. The solar wind is plasma driven by electric fields, accelerating from the sun toward the heliosphere (until the heliopause where nothing from the Sun passes through).
The energy in electromagnetic radiation from the Sun comes from electromagnetic forces. This stable process is not consuming tremendous quantities of hydrogen during a precarious fusion cycle over billions of years which results in the eventual death of the Sun.
The Sun has a known positive charge just as the Earth is known to have a negative charge. The Earth has an atmosphere which becomes positively charged to balance. Lightning bolts occur with this charge differential but the air is not conductive until the differential can create a plasma path for the bolt. The Earth's ionosphere is the electrical separation between the Earth and plasma behaviors in the solar system. An aurora occurs in the ionosphere, a visible reaction to the solar wind.
Because the Sun has its positive charge, it is affected by the magnetic field generated by the Milky Way galaxy.
Dark matter is often mentioned in science news about the universe, as an unsolved mystery.
Astronomers expect stars in a galaxy move like planets move around the Sun. Telescopes about 100 years ago found they do not.
The unexpected motion cannot be explained by visible matter in the galaxy. The solution was: undetectable dark matter must be present causing the wrong motion as an undetctable source of gravity. No further definition is available.
Several recent studies, like in Spain in 2010 and by Donald Scott (of EU) in 2018 concluded the galaxy's magnetic field drives the rotation of the stars in the arms. A study in 2015 (by Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy) concluded the structure in the spiral arms is driven by the measured magnetic field in the arms.
There is no dark matter. Wherever dark matter has been proposed there has been an ignored magnetic field.
Black Hole ...
Black holes are the notable science fiction item in popular cosmology. They don't exist.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting gravitational acceleration so strong that nothing—no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole.
A gravitational singularity, spacetime singularity or simply singularity is a location in spacetime where the gravitational field of a celestial body is predicted to become infinite by general relativity in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system. The quantities used to measure gravitational field strength are the scalar invariant curvatures of spacetime, which includes a measure of the density of matter. Since such quantities become infinite at the singularity, the laws of normal spacetime break down.
A black hole is a singularity. Black hole is the more popular name. When 'the laws of normal spacetime break down' this black hole concept of 'a region of spacetime' is a problem not a real solution.
Despite black holes being an entity which is not a real thing, the black hole is required by popular cosmology for a source of X-ray radiation but a source cannot be found within the limits of popular cosmology with its exclusion of electromagnetic forces.
There is a source of X-rays in the core of nearly all galaxies and most quasars.
Everyone who has had an X-ray image taken for a medical diagnosis knows there is a machine capable of generating X-rays. There is no black hole in an X-ray machine.
Excerpt from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility site:
Synchrotron radiation was seen for the first time at General Electric in the United States in 1947 in a different type of particle accelerator (synchrotron). It was first considered a nuisance, but it was then recognised in the 1960s as light with exceptional properties that overcame the shortcomings of X-ray tubes.
In the mid- to late 1970s, scientists began to produce extremely bright X-rays.
The entire world of synchrotron science depends on one physical phenomenon: When a moving electron changes direction, it emits energy. When the electron is moving fast enough, the emitted energy is at X-ray wavelength.
This simply defined mechanism for X-rays has been known for roughly 50 years. By managing the magnetic field which bends the path of the electrons with an increasing electric current even gamma rays (higher energy than X-rays) can be generated.
Modern cosmology ignores this known physics and instead proposes a new mechanism never duplicated.
The theory is a black hole with its extreme gravity can cause a surrounding disk of material to heat to such an extreme temperature that its thermal radiation extends to X-ray wavelengths.
This mechanism has never been duplicated.
excerpt from a post at the University of Cambridge Institute of Astronomy, about thermal emission:
To be hot enough for the peak of emission to be in the X-ray range the material would have a temperature of around 300,000-300,000,000K.
This is rather unbelievable for material in an accretion disk (not fully compressed but loose enough so friction from rapid rotation causes this heat to reach this extreme temperature and remain intact to continue its radiation.
The Electric Universe can explain the X-ray source using known physics. As mentioned above, stars rotate in a spiral galaxy by the galaxy's magnetic field.
There are measured electric currents connecting our galaxy to others. This electric current along the axis of the galaxy generates the measured galactic magnetic field.
At the core of the galaxy this current pinches or changes direction (there is a plasma phenomenon called a Z-pinch) and this pinch is the source of synchrotron radiation extending to X-rays.
This explanation conforms to known physics. There is no black hole.
In April, 2019 a famous image was taken of the core of the M87 galaxy. This was claimed to be a black hole. It had the shape of a donut. The black hole was claimed to be in the center of the hole in the donut object.
In the 1950's Winston Bostick discovered a plasma behavior that resulted in a donut shape and he called it a plasmoid.
This shape comes from an electric current in a ring contained by a magnetic field. This combination of an electric current bounded by the magnetic field is a source of X-rays.
The famous image of M87 was a plasmoid not a black hole.
There are no black holes.
Conclusion: The Electric Universe describes the universe better than the popular cosmology.
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