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Black hole theory and reality

Most or all references to a black hole  violate Einstein's special theory of relativity (STR).

Here is a partial description of the problem given STR has many consequences.
1. STR applies only to the accelerating observer (AO). All other observers (in an 'inertial reference frame') follow normal physics. This is why it is 'special.'
2. STR arose because Einstein and others believed nothing could go faster than the speed of light. This perceived limit is wrong. A quasar shows a hydrogen emission line with an extreme red shift, even higher than c. That red shift means the tiny atom was moving faster than c at that brief moment it emitted that wavelength.

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A position in spacetime is called an event, and requires four numbers to be specified: the three-dimensional location in space, plus the position in time. Spacetime is thus four dimensional. An event is something that happens instantaneously at a single point in spacetime, represented by a set of coordinates x, y, z and t.
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3. STR also has a problem with a light source with the AO. The speed of light is assumed to be fixed so spacetime must distort to accommodate this combination of adding or subtracting velocities. Instead, in real physics the light wave lengths are red shifted or blue shifted rather than changing the velocity.

4. STR proposes this AO must have a distorted frame of reference as c is approached. The frame of reference is called spacetime and its distortion is spacetime curvature.

5. No other observer can see the AO's spacetime. This is often called the twin paradox; AO or other could have different times.

6. The space time curvature affect's the path of the AO like that of gravity from the mass being passed. STR replaces gravity with spacetime curvature.
This geometry for only the AO allows physicists to propose changes in this spacetime geometry, like a fantasy worm hole.

7. A very large mass results in very large curvature in the AO's spacetime. With an extreme mass the curvature collapses to a single point in the AO space time geometry.
8. The mass for this black hole's curvature is assumed to be so extreme that light cannot escape; the point is called a singularity to imply it exists in real space not just in AO spacetime. The AO cannot see the black hole point.

9. To all other observers the mass is at that location in space.

10. To propose this mass leaves the visible universe for all other observers and now resides in a geometric point in the AO space time so no one can see or detect the mass is incredible. This is not physics.

11. This geometric point is given the misleading label of black hole. There is no hole because the geometric point has no size.
12. Black hole pictures are intentionally misleading. For the AO this point, called a black hole, has no size so every image must show no physical hole. Perhaps an arrow graphic could identify the location of the geometric point (with no size).

13. There are no black holes in the entire universe except the one that theoretically would affect the path of the AO. Other than the AO No one has the mass hidden in a geometric point in the AO spacetime. The mass is still there.

An event horizon is a spacetime behavior so (4) applies.

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In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which light cannot totally escape, because the gravitational pull of a massive object becomes so great as to make escape impossible.
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14. Artist renditions of black holes are not a point.These illustrations with a physical hole do not reflect what STR describes.
These mistakes reveal the problem when taking the theory and trying to understand how to describe it in the real world. This attempt is a failure, as described above.

15. Because we are not the AO at the center of a galaxy it is impossible for us to 'see' a black hole there, or wherever else a black hole is claimed to reside as a geometric point hiding its substantial mass.

There is another problem with an application of a black hole, its accompanying accretion disk.

The most common use for a black hole is an X-ray source with no visible object.
Nearly every galaxy has one but nearly all galactic cores are congested with dust, gas, and numerous stars so the source is usually obscured.
In this case a black hole with an extremely hot accretion disk is proposed.

There is one verified mechanism for generating X-rays: a synchrotron.

Excerpt from the  European Synchrotron Radiation Facility site:
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Synchrotron radiation was seen for the first time at General Electric in the United States in 1947 in a different type of particle accelerator (synchrotron). It was first considered a nuisance because it caused the particles to lose energy, but it was then recognised in the 1960s as light with exceptional properties that overcame the shortcomings of X-ray tubes.

In the mid- to late 1970s, scientists began to discuss ideas for using synchrotrons to produce extremely bright X-rays.

The entire world of synchrotron science depends on one physical phenomenon: When a moving electron changes direction, it emits energy. When the electron is moving fast enough, the emitted energy is at X-ray wavelength.
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This simply defined mechanism for X-rays has been known for roughly 50 years.

Modern cosmology ignores this known physics and instead proposes a new mechanism never duplicated.

The theory is a black hole (an unverified theory) can cause a surrounding disk of material to heat to such an extreme temperature that its thermal radiation extends to X-ray wavelengths.
This mechanism has never been duplicated.

from a post at the University of Cambridge Institute of Astronomy, about thermal emission:

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To be hot enough for the peak of emission to be in the X-ray range the material would have a temperature of around 300,000-300,000,000K.
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This is absolutely unbelievable for material in an accretion disk (not fully compressed but loose enough so friction causes this heat) to reach this extreme temperature and remain intact.
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Last updated (10/13/2019)

Here is the list of topics in this Cosmology Topic Group , including my research.

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