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Galaxies and  Galactic Clusters

This is a compendium of galaxies and galaxy groups, galaxy clusters, and superclusters.
The distribution of galaxy types is interesting. The online reference material was changing day to day in May 2019 so this information must be updated as sources change without notice.

Where available the galaxy type and diameter are also shown.

The list is sorted by distance.
I expect accepted distances of distant galaxies are wrong; some sizes are probably wrong too. Red shift of the neutral hydrogen (NH) atom absorption line is not a velocity of the distant object. The relationship of red shift to distance is affected by the NH density between source and observer. Galaxies and quasars are known to be in a NH cloud so they have higher red shifts  A quasar's extreme red shift is from a hydrogen ion emission line and is definitely not related to the distance of the quasar. These basic errors, for both red and blue, result in wrong conclusions.

A table with distances to galaxies is below. The list is sorted by the accepted distance. Regardless of their accuracy it serves as a useful reference.

 The trivia can be interesting. The list is an overview of many galaxies (with details when available) and their clusters.

At the start of the list are individual galaxies, followed by galaxy groups, then galaxy clusters.

There is something of a pattern observed in the list where ellipticals are usually outnumbered by spirals in a galaxy group; some groups have a mention: 30% ellipticals. It appears nearly every galaxy group will have at least one elliptical. Our local group has Maffei 1, a giant elliptical, for the 3 large spirals, M31, M33, Milky Way. The local group also has a variety of smaller galaxies including the 2 Magellanic Clouds.

There are X-ray sources mentioned in many of the galaxy groups. It is difficult to conclude 'most' but the references are certainly frequent. Milky Way and M31 are known for X-ray sources
Unfortunately a black hole with an accretion disk is claimed as that X-ray source even though such a combination remains only theoretical with no observed evidence. Synchrotron radiation is the more likely source of X-rays. The recent image of the M87 black hole was actually a plasmoid not a fictitious accretion disk somehow generating radio waves.

Some distant clusters have arcs that look electrical; since that arc cannot be explained when using only gravity all of them are claimed to be an object distorted by a fictitious gravitational lens.

Whenever a distance is stated in a reference, its calculation is rarely identified. Cepheids and supernovae serve as standard candles but their range is limited as the magnitude drops over distance.

With so much confidence in the expanding universe I suspect the red shift is used more often rather than the more difficult luminosity calculation, especially given the standard candles have a limited range.

Hubble's Law is applied universally though it should not. It has limitations for its use. I am suspicious of all distances  mentioned here. IC1101 (below) is an obvious anomaly. Perhaps its assumed distance is just wrong.

Distances are shown below because I assume some used Cepheids.
Atlas of the Universe claims a distance is +/- 20%.
It also states: 'distance in millions of light years, assuming that
          the Hubble constant is 70 km/s/Mpc.' This is not a true 'constant' for the entire universe.

T=type: S-spiral; SA=Spiral no bar; SB=Spiral - Barred, SAB= weakly barred; E=Elliptical
S0 is between S and E with halo and dust lanes but no visible sprial arms; S0 is also called lenticular.
(r) has rings  (s) no rings; (rs) appears with no definition
SBd = diffuse,broken arms
DE=Dwarf Elliptical
DIG=Dwarf Irregular Galaxy
DS - Dwarf Spherical
Irr or IG=Irregular Galaxy
GC=Globular Cluster
m= irregular in appearance.
SMBH = Super Massive Black Hole
XRS= X-Ray Source
BHXB = Black Hole X-Ray Binary
W=width or diameter in Kly, D2=Distance to, in Mly
(~) = see below for details

The list is by increasing distance, though by the end those values are certainly wrong.

First, individual galaxies:
Milky Way D2=0 W=90, T=SBbc, has at least 30 satellite galaxies, 150 GC  400 billion stars
LMC D2=0.165, W=25, T=SBm LMCX3 is BHXB
SMC D2=0.195, W=15, T=SBm
M31 D2=2.5, W=140, T=Sb,   has at least 14 satellite galaxies, > 250 GC 1 trillion stars
M32 D2=2.5, W=8, T=cE2
M33 D2=2.7, W=55, T=Sc 40 billion stars
M110 D2=2.7, W=15, T=dE  M31 satellite

NGC 3109 D2=4.1, W=25, T=Irr
NGC 55 D2=4.9, W=25, T=Irr
NGC 1569 D2=508, W=5, T=Irr
NGC 4662 D2=6.5. W=5, T=Irr
NGC 300 D2=7.1, W=45, T=Sc  Sculptor group
NGC 247 D2=8.1, W=50, T=Sc  Sculptor group
IC 342 D2=8.1, W=50, T=Sc - these next near D2=10 are in Maffei galaxy group
NGC 1569 D2=5.8, W=5,  T=Irr - in Maffei group ?
Dwingeloo 1 D2=10, W=>25, T= SB(s)cd
Dwingeloo 2 D2=10, W=? T=Im
Maffei 1 D2=10, W=30 or 75, T=E3  giant elliptical
Maffei 2 D2=10, W=>25, T=SAB(rs)bc

NGC 404 D2=10.8, W=10, T=S0
NGC 1560 D2=12.6, W=35, T=Sc - in Maffei group ?
count in a cluster: W >25
Our Hubble Island separated from the Hubble Flow: E& S0 x 1, S x 6

M81 galaxy group 'hydrogen gas  forming filamentary structures in the group'
M81 D2=12, W=95, T=Sab - M81 galaxy group starts at 12 Mly

Messier 81 (also known as NGC 3031 or Bode's Galaxy) is a spiral galaxy about 12 Mly away, with a diameter of 90 Kly, about half the size of the Milky Way, in the constellation Ursa Major. Due to its proximity to Earth, large size, and active galactic nucleus (which harbors a 70 million Suns supermassive black hole), Messier 81 has been studied extensively by professional astronomers. The galaxy's large size and relatively high brightness also makes it a popular target for amateur astronomers.

Most of the emission at infrared wavelengths originates from interstellar dust. This interstellar dust is found primarily within the galaxy's spiral arms, and it has been shown to be associated with star formation regions. The general explanation is that the hot, short-lived blue stars that are found within star formation regions are very effective at heating the dust and thus enhancing the infrared dust emission from these regions.
M82 D2=12, W=40, T=Irr
NGC 2403 D2=12. W=50, T=SAB(s)cd
NGC 2976 D2=12. W=?, T=SAc pec
IC 2574 D2=12. W=?, T=SAB(s)m

Sculptor Group is a loose group around 12.7 Mly; 'the group may also be described as a filament'
NGC 253 D2=12.9, W=100, T= SAB(s)c brightest in Sculptor group
NGC 59 T=SA(rs)0
NGC 247 D2=11.1, T=SAB(s)d
NGC 625 D2=12.7, T=SB(s)m
IC 1574 D2=12.7 T=IM(s)m
NGC 1313 D2=13.5, W=35, T=Sc
NGC 45 D2=14.2, W=35. T=Sc
M98 D2=14.4,W=155, T=Sab or SABb
The morphological classification of [M98] is SAB(s)ab, which indicates it is a spiral galaxy that displays mixed barred and non-barred features with intermediate to tightly-wound arms and no ring. It is highly inclined to the line of sight at an angle of 74° and has a maximum rotation velocity of 236 km/s. The combined mass of the stars in this galaxy is an estimated 76 billion (7.6 × 10*10) times the mass of the Sun. It contains about 4.3 billion solar masses of neutral hydrogen and 85 million solar masses in dust. The nucleus is active, displaying characteristics of a "transition" type object. That is, it shows properties of a LINER-type galaxy intermixed with an H II region around the nucleus.

Messier 98 is a member of the Virgo Cluster, which is a large, relatively nearby cluster of galaxies. About 750 million years ago, Messier 98 may have interacted with the large spiral galaxy Messier 99. The two are now separated by a distance of 1.3 Mly.'

M83 D2=15.2, W=60, T=Sc
M64 D2=17, W=54, T=SABa

above individual galaxies are < 21 Mly

M101 D2=21, W=170,T=SAB(rs)cd  10^12 stars
M74 D2=24, W=75, T=Sc
M106 D2=24,W=130, T=Sb
M65 D2=25, W=70, T=Sa
NGC 6946 D2=25.2, T=SAB(rs)cd, aka Fireworks galaxy
M63  W=26, T=SA(rs)bc
M104 D2=30, W=75, T=Sa
M95 D2=33, W=70, T=SBb
M96 D2=34,W=75, T=Sab
M66 D2=34, W=95, T=Sb

M105 D2=36, W=55, T=E1
NGC 3184 D2=40, T=SA(s)b
M98 D2=44, W=95, T=SAB(s)b
M77 D2=45, W=95, T=Sb
M108 D2=45,W=115, T=Sbc
[M108] is an isolated member of the Ursa Major Cluster of galaxies in the Virgo supercluster. It has a morphological classification of type SBbc, which means it is a barred spiral galaxy with somewhat loosely wound arms.

This galaxy has an estimated mass of 125 billion times the mass of the Sun and includes about 290 ± 80 globular clusters. Examination of the distribution of neutral hydrogen in this galaxy shows shells of expanding gas extending for several kiloparsecs, known as H1 supershells. These may be driven by bursts of star formation activity, resulting in supernovae explosions. Alternatively they may result from an infall of gas from outside the galaxy or by radio jets.

Observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory have identified 83 X-ray sources, including a source located at the nucleus. The brightest of these sources may be an intermediate-mass black hole that is accreting matter. The galaxy is also emitting a diffuse soft X-ray radiation within 10 kpc of the optical galaxy. The spectrum of the X-ray source at the core is consistent with an active galactic nucleus, but an examination with the Spitzer Space Telescope shows no indication of activity. The SMBH at the core has an estimated mass equal to 24 million times the mass of the Sun.

Above galaxies have a distance < 50 Mly

M59 D2=50, W=75, T=E5
M61 D2=50, W=95, T=SBbc
M89 D2=50, T=E >2000 GC gas structure > 150Kly, jets > 100Kly
XRS at core has ring like structures
M61 D2=52.5, W=100, T=SAB(rs)bc
NGC 4323 D2=52.5, W=14, T=dE
M100 D2=53, W=167, T=Sbc   has bridge of matter to NGC 4323
M49 D2=53,W=160, T=E2  5900 GC
M85 D2=53,W=110, T=S0
M91 D2=53, W=85, T=SBb
M87 D2=53.5, W=240, T=E0  known for jets from core, has > 50 satellite galaxies, 12000 GC

M90 D2=55, W=155, T=Sab
'there are H II regions outside the galactic plane,as well as long (up to 260 Kly tails of ionized gas that has been stripped of M90.'

M88 D2=55, W=110, T=Sb
M88 is also classified as a type 2 Seyfert galaxy, which means it produces narrow spectral line emission from highly ionized gas in the galactic nuclei. In the core region there is a central condensation with a 230 parsec diameter, which has two concentration peaks. This condensation is being fed by inflow from the spiral arms. The supermassive black hole at the core of this galaxy has 10^8 solar masses, or about 80 million times the mass of the Sun.'

M58 D2=55,W=95, T=Sb
Messier 58 has a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus, where a starburst may be present as well as a supermassive black hole with a mass of around 70 million solar masses. It is also one of the very few galaxies known to possess a UCNR (Ultra-Compact Nuclear Ring), a series of star-forming regions located in a very small ring around the center of the galaxy.

M99 D2=55,W=85, T=Sc
M109 D2=55, W=120, T=SBbc
M84 D2=57, W=105, T=E1
M86 D2=57, W=125, T=E3
M60 D2=57, W=32, T= E1.5

collection from D2 17 to 57
E& S0 x 6, S x 19

NGC 6872 D2=212, W=522, T=SB(s)b pec
IC 4970 D2=212, W=>130, T=SA0 - interacting with NGC 6872

NGC 4676A 4676B D2=290, T=Irr, SB(s)0/a pec aka Mice Galaxies

Tadpole Galaxy D2=400, T=SB(s)c pec 'Collided galaxy'

Following are galaxy groups:

For galaxy groups that are not too distant, like the M81 group, the red shift for individual galaxies are sometimes available but their distances are not always shown. Apparently red shifts are more important.

Local Group D2=0  has Milky Way, M31, M33, more
Maffei Group D2=10  some members are described  above (with the close M#)

M81 Group  D2=12
has 34 members including M81(~), M82(~), others
M81 Dwarf A D2=12,W=?,T=I,
IC 2574 T=SAB(s)m, NGC 2366 T=IB(s)m,
NGC 2403 D2=10.6, W=70, T=SAB(s)cd,
NGC 2976 D2=14.8, W=25, T=ScT=SAc pec,
NGC 4305 D2=10.9, W=25, T=Irr
NGC 2366 D2=11.2, W=25, T=Irr
NGC 3077  T=I0 pec,
NGC 4236  W=?, T=SAB(s)dm

NGC 2366 D2= 11.2, W=25, T=Irr
IC2574 D2=12.4, W=50, T=Irr
NGC 253 D2=12.9, W=100, T=Sc
NGC 625 D2=13, W=20, T=Irr
NGC 2976 D2=14.8, W=25, T=Sc

M81 group count:
E& S0 x 1, S x 6

Canes I group D2= around 12.6
NGC 3738 D2=12.6, W=10, T=Irr
NGC 4214 D2=13.4, W=35, T=Irr
NGC 4244 D2=14.7, W=14.7, W=70, T=Sc
NGC  4449 D2=12.6, W=20, T=Sc
NGC 4605 D2=16.9, W=30, T=Sc
NGC 4736 D2= 17, W=60, T=Sa  M94
NGC 5023 D2=17.6, W=30, T=Sc

Canes I group count: S x 1

NGC 5128 group D2 around 12.4, includes M83(~)
Circinus D2=12, W=25, T=Sb
NGC 5128 D2=12.4, W=90, T=Ep or S0 pec,  aka Centaurs A; 5th brighest galaxy

The X-ray jets of Centaurus A are thousands of light-years long, while the radio jets are over a million light-years long.
NGC 5253 D2=11.7, W=15, T=Irr
NGC 5204 D2=14.8, W=20, T=Irr
ESO274-01 D2=16, W=55, T=Sc
NGC 4945 D2=17.0, W=60, T=T=Sc
NGC 5128 count: S0 x1, S x 1

NGC 1023 group D2=20.5 part of local supercluster with local group

has NGC 1023 T=SB(rs)0, NGC 925 T=SAB(s)d, NGC 891 T=SB(rs)0, NGC 1239 T=SAB(rs)cd, NGC 1058 T=SA(rs)c

M101 Group  D2=21

has M101 (~) and NGC 5204 T=SA(s)m,
NGC 5474 T=SA(s)cd pec,
NGC 5477 T=SA(s)m,
NGC 5585 T=SAB(s)

M51 Group  D2=23 or 25
M51A  D2=23, W=76, T=SA(s)bc pec
Whirlpool Galaxy lies 23 million light years from Earth and has an estimated diameter of 76,000 light years. Overall the galaxy is about 76% the size of the Milky Way. Its mass is estimated to be 160 billion solar masses.
 is an interacting grand-design spiral galaxy with a Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus.
A black hole, surrounded by a ring of dust, is thought to exist at the heart of the spiral. The dust ring stands almost perpendicular to the relatively flat spiral nebula. A secondary ring crosses the primary ring on a different axis, a phenomenon that is contrary to expectations. A pair of ionization cones extend from the axis of the main dust ring.
M51B W=?, T=SB0 pec, M63(~)
NGC 5023 (T=Scd), NGC 5229 T=SB(s)d, UGC 8313 T=SB(s)c

NGC 2997 group D2=24.8 in Antlia
has NGC 2997 D2=39.8 T=SA (s)c

NGC 1800 group D2=35
has NGC 1800, ESO362-9, ESO348-9

M66 Group - Leo Triplet   D2=35
has M65(~), M66(~), NGC 3628 D2=25, W=300, T=Sab pec has a tail

M96 Group  - Leo I Group D2=37
has M95(~), M96(~), M105(~), Leo Ring, and
NGC 3299 W=?, T=SB(s)dm, NGC 3377 W=40, T=E5.5, NGC 3412 T=SB(s)0,
NGC 3489 W=30,T=SAB(rs)0+

The Leo Ring is an immense intergalactic cloud of hydrogen and helium gas some 650 Kly in diameter, in orbit of two galaxies [M96, NGC 8384], in the center of the Leo Group of galaxies.

M51 group is end of line with M101 group and NGC 5866 group

NGC 5866 Group D2=50
has NGC 5866 W=60, T=S0, 5879 T=SA(rs)bc, NGC 5907 T=SB+

Virgo I group D2=52
Virgo Cluster  D2=54 - has > 1300 galaxies
known for its Virgo-centric Flow - Local Group higher red shifts imply Local Group is moving faster than this more distant group

has M58, M59, M60, M61(~), M84(~), M85(~), M86(~), M87(~), M88(~), M89(~), M91(~), M98(~), M100(~),  and
NGC 4450, 4526, 4527, 4536, 4550 T=S0,W=50, 4567, 4568 T=SBc,W=65, NGC 4571 T=Sc,W=55, 4651 T=Sc,W=60, 4654 T=SBc,W=75, NGC 4654 T=SBc,W=75

Markarian's Chain  D2=about 55 - 8 galaxies 'lie along a smoothly curved line' chain includes M84, M86, and
NGC 4435 and 4438 (both SB0/SAb), NGC 4458 (T=E0,W=29), NGC 4461 (T=SB0,W=51),
Markarian's Eyes name for 4435/4438 pair (APOD)
Virgo II groups
M61 group D2=55
NGC 4179 D2=55, T=S0
NGC 4753 D2=55, T=S0
NGC 4697 D2=55, T=E
NGC 4699 D2=65, T=Spiral
NGC 4856 D2=62, T=E

NGC 4030 D2=60,T=SA(s)bc
NGC 5084 D2=80, W=200, T=S0

Virgo II has 17 more galaxies not in a group, including M104

Fornax Cluster D2=62 - is part of Fornax Wall
has many
IC 1913(T=SBb,W=40), IC 1919(T=E,W=30), IC 335(T=S0,W=45), and IC 2006(T=E,W=35),

NGC 1310(T=SBc,W=35), 1316(T=S0,W=215), 1317(T=SBa,W=55), 1326(T=S0,W=51)(T=S0,W=80), 1326A(T=SBm,W=30), 1326B(T=SBm,W=65), NGC 1336(T=E,W=35), 1339(T=E,W=35), 1341(T=SBab,W=30), 1344(T=E,W=105), NGC 1350(T=SBab,W=110), 1351(T=E,W=60), 1351A(T=SBbc,W=45), NGC 1365(T=S0,W=205), 1366(T=S0,W=35), NGC 1374(T=E,W=35), 1375(T=S0,W=40), 1379(T=E,W=50), 1380(T=S0,W=90), NGC 1380A(T=S0,W=45), 1381(T=S0,W=50), NGC 1382(T=E,W=30), 1386(T=S0,W=65), NGC 1387(T=E,W=60), 1389(T=E,W=50), NGC 1399(T=E,W=130), NGC 1404(T=E,W=75), 1406(T=SBbc,W=75), NGC 1425, 1427A(T=Irr,W=40), 1428(T=E,W=30), NGC 1437(T=SBab,W=50), NGC 1460(T=S0,W=30), 1531(T=S0,W=?), 1532(T=SBb,W=?)

Ursa Major N group D2=55 has 28 galaxies no details
Ursa Major S group D2=55 has 15 galaxies no details

Leo II galaxy groups (11 of them) D2=65-95

NGC 3370 group D2=65, has 8: Sab,SBb,SBc,SBm,Sc,Scd,Irr,?
NGC 3169 group D2=70, has 4: S0,Sa,Sa,Sm
NGC 3254 group D2=75, has 5: E,S0,Sab,SBb,Sbc
NGC 3327 group D2=75, has 4: E,SBa,SBc,SBm
NGC 3190 group D2=80, has 7: E, Sa, Sb, SBa,SBc, SBc, Sc
NGC 3504 group D2=85, has 8: S0,S0,SBa,SBa,SBab,SBcd,SBc, SBd
NGC 3813 group D2=90, has 3: Sb, SBc, SBc

Other galaxies in the Leo II area but not in a named group D2=?
has 18: S0x2, Sc x6, Sb,ABab,SBb,SBc x3,SBd x2,Scd,Irr

Dorado group D2=65 has 19 galaxies no details
Fornax II group D2=65 has 41 galaxies no details

Eridanus Cluster  D2=75 - aka Eridanus Cloud
about 73 main galaxies and about 200 total galaxies. About 30% have Hubble classifications of elliptical or S0 and the remaining 70% are spiral or irregular.
has IC 343 W=35, T=S0, IC 346 W=45, T=S0, IC 1898 W=85,W=85,T=SBc, IC 1952 W=60, T=SBbc, IC 1953 W=65, T=SBc, NGC 1232 W=170,T=SAB(rs)c, NGC 1258 W=90, T=SBc,NGC 1297 W=50,T=E, NGC 1300 W=110, T=SBbc, NGC 1315 W=35,T=S0, 1325 W=115, T=SBbc, NGC 1325A W=45, T=SBcd, NGC 1332 W=105, T=E, NGC 1345 W=35, T=SBc, NGC 1347 W=35, T=SBc, NGC 1353 W=85, T=SBb, NGC 1359, NGC 1362 W=30, T=S0, NGC 1370 W=35, T=E, NGC 1371 W=140, T=SBa, NGC 1377 W=45, T=S0, NGC 1383 W=40, T=S0, NGC 1385 W=90, T=SBc, NGC 1390, NGC 1395 W=140, T=E, NGC 1398 W=135, T=SB(r)ab, NGC 1400 W=60, T=E, NGC 1401 W=50 T=S0, NGC 1403 W=30, T=E, NGC 1407 W=125, T=E, NGC 1412 W=35, T=S0, NGC 1414 W=40, T=SBbc, NGC 1415 W=80, T=Sa, NGC 1422 W=55, T=SBab, NGC 1426 W=60, T=E, NGC 1438 W=50, T=SBa, NGC 1439 W=65, T=E, NGC 1440, NGC 1452 W=60, T=Sa, NGC 1482 W=55, T=S0

Abell S636 D2=133- aka Antlia cluster
'cluster is dominated by two massive elliptical galaxies, NGC 3268 and NGC 3258, and contains a total of about 234 galaxies. The cluster is very dense compared to other clusters such as Virgo and Fornax, thus containing early-type galaxies and a larger portion of dwarf ellipticals. The Cluster is split into two galaxy groups, The Northern subgroup gravitating around NGC 3268, and the Southern subgroup centered on NGC 3258.

The cluster has an overall redshift of z = 0.0087, implying that the cluster is, like most objects in the Universe, receding from the Local Group.  X-ray observations show that the cluster is almost isothermal, with a mean temperature of kT ~ 2.0 keV.

has NGC 3258 T=E, NGC 3258A, NGC 3258B, NGC 3260 T=E, NGC 3267 T=S0, NGC 3268 T=E, NGC 3269 T=S0, NGC 3271 t=SB, NGC 3273 - few details for these galaxies

above galaxy clusters < 150 Mly

Abell 1060  D2=158 - aka Hydra cluster
Hydra Cluster is a galaxy cluster that contains 157 bright galaxies; cluster spans about ten million light years
Centaurus supercluster D2=194 Mly W=150 Mly
has: A1030, A3526(~), A3565, A3574, A3581

Abell 3526 D2=170aka Centaurus cluster, in Cen supercluster
has NGC 3309 D2=200, T=E3  has radio jets, >350 GC, and
NGC 3311 D2=190, W=230, T=cD2, E+2,
and NGC 4696 D2=116, T=E1 pec  is brightest in cluster

Perseus-Pisces supercluster D2=222 Mly W=100 Mly
has A262(~), A347, A426 (~)

Abell 262  D2=214   (~)
has NGC 708 D2=240, W=200, T=E has radio jets and lobes, has 4700 GC

Abell 262 is a galaxy cluster [and] is part of the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster, one of the largest known structures in the universe.Although its central galaxy, NGC 708, is a giant cD galaxy, most of its bright galaxies are spirals, which is unusual for a galaxy cluster. With approximately 200 members it is a comparatively small cluster.

Abell 3627 D2=221  aka  Norma Cluster - near the Great Attractor

has ESO 137-001 D2=220, T=SBc, tail 260 Kly - a jellyfish galaxy
Norma cluster is obscured by Zone of Avoidance

Pavo-Indus supercluster D2=235, 100

has A3656, A3698, A3742
Phe-Scl subgroup D2=372, W=150 Part of Pavo=Indus
has A2731, A2806, 2870, 2877, 2896


Abell 426   D2=240

'[Abell 426] is one of the most massive objects in the known universe, containing thousands of galaxies immersed in a vast cloud of multimillion-degree gas.'

Coma supercluster D2=290 Mly W=290 W=100Mly
has A1367, A1656 (~)

A1367 or Leo or West Coma cluster D2=290 or 295 or 369

A1367 and A1656
Redshifts for a total sample of 238 galaxies to a limiting magnitude of 15.0 are used to study the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies in the region of the sky ranging from approximately 11.5 h to 13.3 h right ascension between declinations of about 19 and 32 deg, within which lie the two rich clusters Coma and A1367. The results obtained demonstrate that the two clusters are embedded in a common supercluster of very large extent. It is found that there are three observationally distinct populations of galaxies within this supercluster, including galaxies located in the two rich cluster cores, those located in intermediate- or low-mass clusters, and a nearly homogeneously distributed population of isolated galaxies; in addition, a population of foreground galaxies located in low-mass clusters rather than being distributed in a homogeneous 'field' is also identified. The redshift of formation for the foreground groups is estimated to be no more than about 9, and the morphology of the galaxies is examined. It is suggested that every nearby very rich cluster is located in a supercluster and that all clusters of richness class greater than or equal to 2 will eventually be found to lie in superclusters.

A1656 East Coma cluster D2=295 or 305

CfA2 Great Wall D2=300  at nearest

The CfA2 Great Wall has the maximum dimensions of either 500 million or 750 million light years; depending upon the figure and the reference used. It is 200 million light years in width and about 16 million light years in thickness. Its nearest point is about 300 million light years from Earth, while its farthest point is 550 million light years away. It consists of three massive galaxy superclusters: Hercules, Coma and Leo.
The CfA2 Great Wall also includes the Coma Filament.

NGC 70 galaxy group D2=350 > 40 Galaxies
NGC 67 D2=275, W=40, T=E5
NGC 68 D2=260, W=90, T=E1
NGC 69 D2=300, W=80, T=S0
NGC 70 D2=320, W=180, T=Sb
NGC 71 D2=300, W=120. T=E5/S0
NGC 72 D2=320, W=180, T=Sb, Sbc
NGC 74 D2=325, T=S0

Phoenix supercluster D2=372 W=150
has A2731,A2806,A2836,A2870,A2877,A2896

Hercules (a) supercluster D2=372 W=150
has A2162,A2197,A2199

HCG 87 D2=400 (Hickson Compact group)
has  HCG 87a T=S0 pec, HCG 87b, T=SA(r)0, HCG 87b, T=SA(r)0 pec, HCG 87c T=Sb, HCG 87d, T= Sd

Leo supercluster D2=440 W=150, part of Hercules (a)
has A3570,A3571,A3575,A3578

Abell 2151 D2=500 - aka Hercules cluster - 'rich in spiral galaxies and shows many interacting galaxies.'

has NGC 6041 D2=473, W=?, T=E+2 - brightest in cluster

Abell S740 D2=476no details

above galaxy clusters < 500 Mly

Hercules (b) supercluster D2=507 W=150
has A2162,A2052,A2063,A2107,A2147,A2148,A2151(~),S2152,

Shapley (a) supercluster D2=507, W=100 same D2 as Hercues (b)

Abell 2151 D2=509'loaded with gas and dust rich, star-forming spiral galaxies but has relatively few elliptical galaxies'

Hercules (b) supercluster D2=521 W=200

has A2052, A2063, A2107, A2147, A2148, A2151, 2152(~)

Peg subgroup D2=548, W=100 part of Hercules (b)
has A548, A2572, A2589, 2593, 2657

Cet subgroup D2=588, W=100 part of Hercules (b)
has A548, A76, A119, A147, A168

Psc subgroup D2=601, W=150 part of Hercules (b)
has A548, A160, A119, A193, A195

Abell 2152 D2=551'It contains 3 BCGs; the S0 lenticular UGC 10204, the pair UGC 10187, and the SA0 unbarred lenticular CGCG 108-083. In total there are 41 galaxies which are confirmed to be members of the cluster'

Abell 671 D2=600no details

Shapley (b) supercluster D2=654, W=200
has A1631,A1644, A1709, A1736, A3528, A2530, A3532, A3542, A3553, A3554, A3555, A3556, A3558, A3559, A3560, 3562, A3564, A3566, A3572, A3577

Sculptor supercluster D2=668, W=100
Scl subgroup D2=668, W=100 part of Sculptor
has A2717, A4808, A4012, A4013, A4059

Sex subgroup D2=681, W=200 part of Sculptor
Pup-Car subgroup D2=694, W=200 part of Sculptor
Leo-Vir subgroup D2=708, W=200 part of Sculptor
Vir-Ser subgroup D2=708, W=150 part of Sculptor
Aqr subgroup D2=747, W=100 part of Sculptor
Cet subgroup D2=774, W=150 part of Sculptor

Ursa Major supercluster D2=813, W=200

Pisces-Cetus(a) supercluster D2=813, W=350

Bootes supercluster D2=826, W=150

Pisces-Cetus(b) supercluster D2=852, W=200

Horologium supercluster D2=905, W=550

Corona Borealis supercluster D2=970, W=250

On consecutive days near May 28 the content for superclusters was changing; I will revisit later when it is hopefully stable.
Abell 133 galaxy cluster D2=763

Abell 133 observations:
Filaments of the cosmic web have long been associated with the threadlike structures seen in galaxy redshift surveys. However, despite their baryon content being dominated by hot gas, these filaments have been an elusive target for X-ray observations. Recently, detections of filaments in very deep (2.4 Msec) observations with Chandra were reported around Abell 133 (z=0.0559). To verify these claims, we conducted a multi-object spectrographic campaign on the Baade 6.5m telescope around Abell 133; this resulted in a catalog of ~3000 new redshift measurements, of which 254 are of galaxies near the cluster. We investigate the kinematic state of Abell 133 and identify the physical locations of filamentary structure in the galaxy distribution. Contrary to previous studies, we see no evidence that Abell 133 is dynamically disturbed; we reject the hypothesis that there is a kinematically distinct subgroup (p=0.28) and find no velocity offset between the central galaxy and the cluster (Zscore=0.041+0.111-0.106). The spatial distribution of galaxies traces the X-ray filaments, as confirmed by angular cross correlation with a significance of ~5s. A similar agreement is found in the angular density distribution, where two X-ray structures have corresponding galaxy enhancements. We also identify filaments in the large-scale structure of galaxies; these filaments approach the cluster from the direction the X-ray structures are seen. While more members between R200 and 2×R200 are required to clarify which large scale filaments connect to the X-ray gas, we argue that this is compelling evidence that the X-ray emission is indeed associated with cosmic filaments.

Bootes supercluster D2= 826, W=150 (has 11 Abell clusters)
has A1781, A1795, A1827, 1828, 1831
Phe subgroup D2=852, W=100 part of Bootes supercluster
has A2841, 2854, 2889
old data for Bootes:

has these clusters: A1781 D2=820, A1795 D2=840, A1825 D2=790, A1827 D2=870, A1828 D2=840, A1831 D2=815, A1775 D2=950, A1800 D2=1000, A1861 D2=?, A1873 D2=1025, A1898 D2=1025

Abell 3266 D2=809
Abell 3266 is 'one of the largest in the southern sky, and one of the largest mass concentrations in the nearby universe.

The Department of Physics at the University of Maryland discovered that a large mass of gas is hurtling through the cluster at a speed of 750 km/s (466 mph). The mass is billions of solar masses, approximately 3 million light-years in diameter and is the largest of its kind discovered as of June 2006.

above galaxy clusters < 1000 Mly
Abell 2029 galaxy cluster D2=1000 - has IC1101 D2=1,045 W=210, T=E/S0
IC1101 is "possibly one of the largest and most luminous galaxies in the universe"

Abell 2242 D2=1,243no details
Abell 1413 D2=1,934300 galaxies

'Abell 1413 holds about 300 galaxies together with its strong gravity. Due to the strong interactions in the cluster, the material is heated up to 100 million degrees. Because of this intense heat, strong X-ray radiation is emitted from the cluster. Scientists using the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope observed Abell 1413 and built a sample of over 250 galaxies. These scientists consider Abell 1413 relaxed even though it has a highly elliptical shape.
Abell 2218 D2=2,345known for its gravitational lens

'Acting as a powerful lens, it magnifies and distorts all galaxies lying behind the cluster core into long arcs. The lensed galaxies are all stretched along the cluster's center and some of them are multiply imaged. Those multiple images usually appear as a pair of images with a third — generally fainter — counter image, as is the case for the very distant object. The lensed galaxies are particularly numerous, as we are looking in between two mass clumps, in a saddle region where the magnification is quite large.

Abell 665 D2=2,348 has > 300 galaxies
Abell 1689 D2=2,459another gravitational lens

Abell 1689 hosts the largest population of globular clusters ever found. While our galaxy, the Milky Way, is only home to around 150 of these old clumps of stars, Hubble has spied some 10 000 globular clusters within Abell 1689. From this, the astronomers estimate that this galaxy cluster could possibly contain over 160 000 globulars overall – an unprecedented number.

This is not the first time that this trusty magnifying glass has helped astronomer detectives try to solve clues about the Universe. In 2010, astronomers were able to investigate the elusive phenomena of dark matter and dark energy by mapping the composition of Abell 1689 (opo1037a, heic1014). Its powers as a zoom lens also enabled Hubble to identify a galaxy dubbed A1689-zD1 in 2008, one of the youngest and brightest galaxies ever seen at the time (heic0805).

This image is peppered with glowing golden clumps, bright stars, and distant, ethereal spiral galaxies. Material from some of these galaxies is being stripped away, giving the impression that the galaxy is dripping into the surrounding space. Also visible are a number of electric blue streaks, circling and arcing around the fuzzy galaxies in the centre.

These streaks are the tell-tale signs of a cosmic phenomenon known as gravitational lensing. Abell 1689 is so massive that it actually bends and warps the space around it, affecting how light from objects behind the cluster travels through space. These streaks are actually the distorted forms of galaxies that lie behind Abell 1689.

Abell 222 galaxy cluster D2=2,400 - another gravitational lens
Abell 223 galaxy cluster D2=2,400 - a filament connects 222 to 223

A giant string of invisible dark matter has been discovered across the universe between a pair of galaxy clusters.

The filament forms a bridge between two huge clusters called Abell 222 and Abell 223, which lie 2.7 billion light-years away. The universe is thought to be filled with such strings of dark matter, a mysterious substance that cannot be seen, only sensed through its gravitational pull.

Scientists have made previous attempts to find dark matter filaments, which are predicted by theories that suggest galaxy clusters form at the intersections of filaments. Dark matter is thought to make up 83 percent of all matter in the universe.

"This is the first time [a dark matter filament] has been convincingly detected from its gravitational lensing effect," said astronomer Jörg Dietrich of the University Observatory Munich, in Germany. "It's a resounding confirmation of the standard theory of structure formation of the universe. And it's a confirmation people didn't think was possible at this point."

Many astronomers thought detecting filaments would have to wait until telescopes became significantly more advanced, but Dietrich and his colleagues benefited from the rare spatial geometry of this cluster, which allowed them to detect signs of what's called weak gravitational lensing.
Abell 383 galaxy cluster D2=2,500
Abell 520 galaxy cluster D2 = 2,645 - chaotic - Train Wreck Cluster
Abell 2261 D2=2,956
has A2261-BCG D2=3Gly, W=1000,T=cD E, with 10 trillion stars or 10^13

A2261-BCG (short for Abell 2261 Brightest Cluster Galaxy) is a huge elliptical galaxy in the cluster Abell 2261. One of the largest galaxies known, A2261-BCG is estimated to have a diameter of a million light-years, some 10 times larger than the Milky Way. It is the brightest and the most massive galaxy in the cluster, and has the largest galactic core ever observed, spanning more than 10,000 light-years.

The cD elliptical galaxy, located at least 3 billion light-years from Earth, is also well known as a radio source. Its core is highly populated by a dense number of old stars, but is mysteriously diffuse, giving it a large core.

Abell 2390 D2=2,997gravitational lens

Abell 2390 is well known because of its gravitational arcs captured by the Hubble Space Telescope.'
Abell 2667 has the Comet Galaxy D2=3,200 W=600, T=dIrr

The Comet Galaxy, a spiral galaxy located 3.2 billion light-years from Earth, in the galaxy cluster Abell 2667. This galaxy has slightly more mass than our Milky Way.
This unique spiral galaxy, which is situated 3.2 billion light-years from the Earth, has an extended stream of bright blue knots and diffuse wisps of young stars. It rushes at 3.5 million km/h through the cluster Abell 2667 and therefore, like a comet, shows a tail, with a length of 600,000 light-years.

The Comet Galaxy is currently being ripped to pieces, moving through a cluster at speeds of greater than 2 million mph. As the galaxy speeds through, its gas and stars are being stripped away by the tidal forces exerted by the cluster - just as the tidal forces exerted by the Moon and Sun push and pull the Earth's oceans. Also contributing to this destructive process is the pressure of the cluster's hot gas plasma reaching temperatures as high as 100 million degrees. Scientists estimate that the total duration of the transformation process is close to one billion years. What is seen now in the Hubble's image is roughly 200 million years into the process. Even though the Comet Galaxy's mass is slightly greater than the Milky Way, it will lose all its gas and dust, and so not be able to generate stars later in life. It will become a gas-poor galaxy with an old population of red stars.

During the ram pressure stripping process, the charged particles strip and push away the infalling galaxy's gas, just as the solar wind of charged particles pushes ionized gas away from a comet to create a gas tail. For this reason the scientists have nicknamed the stretched spiral the "comet galaxy."
Abell 1835 D2=3,337 for a while it had the most distant galaxy at 13.2 Bly

Abell 1835 IR1916 was a candidate for being the most distant galaxy ever observed, although that claim has not been verified by additional observations.
The initial observer's analysis of J-band observations indicated that Abell 1835 IR1916 has a redshift factor of z~10.0, meaning that it appears to us as it was about 13.2 billion years ago, only 470 million years after the Big Bang and very close to the first burst of star formation in the universe. This redshift also implies a comoving distance from the earth of about 13.2 billion light years. Its visibility at such a great distance was credited to gravitational lensing by the galaxy cluster Abell 1835 between it and us.

Further analysis of the data that led to the first announcement has cast doubt on the claim that it is a distant object, and follow-up observations in the H-band using the Gemini North Telescope and observations from the orbiting Spitzer Space Telescope were not able to detect it at all, the latter regarding it to be an artefact.
Bullet Cluster D2=3,700 is 2 colliding clusters

Abell 2744 D2=3,982radio halo
Abell 2744, nicknamed Pandora's Cluster, is a giant galaxy cluster resulting from the simultaneous pile-up of at least four separate, smaller galaxy clusters that took place over a span of 350 million years. The galaxies in the cluster make up less than five percent of its mass. The gas (around 20 percent) is so hot that it shines only in X-rays. Dark matter makes up around 75 percent of the cluster's mass.

This cluster also shows a radio halo along with several other Abell clusters. It has a strong central halo, along with an extended tail, which could either be relic radiation, or an extension of the central halo

Abell 370 galaxy cluster D2=4,000 - known for its gravitational lens


The last clusters in the list have extreme red shifts.
Many of the clusters beyond 2Bly are claimed to be a gravitational lens causing their distortion.

Abell 370 is a galaxy cluster located approximately 4 billion light-years away from the Earth (at redshift z = 0.375), in the constellation Cetus Its core is made up of several hundred galaxies. It was catalogued by George Abell, and is the most distant of the clusters he catalogued.'

Abell 370 appears to include several arcs of light, including the largest ever discovered with 30" long. These arcs or deformations are mirages caused by gravitational lensing of massive and dark objects located between the observer and the distant galaxies. This cluster shows an apparent magnitude of +22.

In 2002, astronomers used this lensing effect to discover a galaxy, HCM-6A, 12.8 billion light years away from Earth. At the time it was the furthest known galaxy.

In 2009, study in the field of Abell 370 revealed a grouping of background galaxies lensed and distorted by the cluster into an arc with the appearance of a dragon, hence nicknamed The Dragon by NASA scientists. Its head is composed of a spiral galaxy, with another image of the spiral composing the tail. Several other images form the body of the dragon, all overlapping. These galaxies all lie approximately 5 billion light years away.
El Gordo galaxy cluster D2= > 7,000

El Gordo (lit. The Fat One) (ACT-CL J0102-4915 or SPT-CL J0102-4915) is the largest distant galaxy cluster observed at its distance or beyond, as of 2011. As of 2014, it still holds the record for being the largest distant galaxy cluster to have been discovered with a mass of 3 quadrillion suns. has z=0.87

Goiello galaxy cluster D2= > 7,000
Gioiello is the most distant massive galaxy cluster that has been found and studied today. This massive galaxy cluster weighs 400 trillion times the mass of the sun and is located 9.6 billion light years away from Earth. Gioiello, meaning Jewel in Italian, was given to this massive galaxy cluster because an image of the cluster contains many beautiful pink, purple, and red sparkling colors from the hot X-ray emitting gas and other star-forming galaxies within the cluster.

Although several clusters have been confirmed at this size it is the only cluster with redshifts capable of diffusing X-ray emission which creates different limitations on the temperature and on the mass of the galaxy.

IKCS galaxy group D2=9,900 with z=1.9 > 18 galaxies

IDCS 1426 galaxy cluster D2= 10,000
I can never find the content of the most distant cluster identifying the number of quasars or galaxies. That detail helps understand how the distances are calculated.


Here is the supercluster context for the above galaxy clusters:

TheHydra-Centaurus cluster includes four large galaxy clusters in the Centaurus part

Abell 3526 (Centaurus Cluster) - mentioned above
Abell 3565 - no details
Abell 3574 - no details
Abell 3581 - no details
and the proximate

Hydra Cluster (A1060) - mentioned above
Norma Cluster (A3627) - mentioned above
Antlia Cluster (AS0636) - mentioned above

Apart from the central clusters, which are 150 to 200 millions of light years away, several smaller clusters belong to the group.

Within the proximity of this supercluster lies the Great Attractor, dominated by the Norma Cluster (Abell 3627). This massive cluster of galaxies exerts a large gravitational force, causing all matter within 50 Mpc to experience a bulk flow of 600 km/s toward the Norma Cluster.

A 2014 announcement says that the Centaurus Supercluster (Hydra-Centaurus) is just a lobe in a greater supercluster, Laniakea, that is centered on the Great Attractor. That supercluster would include the Virgo Supercluster, therefore including the Milky Way where Earth resides.

Most distant galaxy as of 2016:
GN-z11      with red shift of 11.09:
light travel distance = 13.4Bly
Proper distance of 32 Bly

I began this exercise to see if there were noticeable patterns. I posted on May 25 about the distant galaxy groups being a gravitational lens to explain their apparent distortion.

I wonder where those galaxies (and clusters) really are, with an uncertain distance using only red shifts.

Added May 2019
Last change 06/05/2019

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Here is the list of topics in this Cosmology Topic Group , including my research.

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