Modern cosmology is Earth based
When we move beyond our access to an Earth based reference frame modern cosmology will break.
Modern cosmology is firmly based on Einstein's special theory of relativity and its spacetime geometry.
I believe the following is a correct interpretation of relativity and spacetime.
Spacetime curvature 'exists' only in the accelerating observer's reference frame; it is not something in real space. The same for black holes.
This basis on an observer's reference frame truly breaks when there is no common reference frame for all observers.
Right now relativity can appear to work because we can all share the celestial coordinate system so all Earth based observers can share observations of the visible universe with other observers.
When viewing the universe from the Moon or Mars, the observer's location can be described within the Earth's celestial coordinates so coordinate system transformations are possible for current positions of the bodies.
That becomes impossible with a distant location like on a planet around Vega, a nearby star. The extent of the visible universe could change.
Everything in modern cosmology is geocentric including all visible object locations and their red shift velocities, and the expanding universe. Hubble even placed our Local Group on an island separate from the Hubble Flow which has always been geocentric.
The only way to avoid this Earth centric cosmology is to use a universal geometry as its basis. That allows all observers to share a common reference frame outside of relativity.
However a universal geometry is impossible because there are no defined planes in this geometry but more importantly there is no known fixed point in the universe to serve as a zero reference point for this geometry. Without that fixed point the geometry is mobile, with its 'reference' set by the observer. The universe does not provide a 'built-in' geometry.
Newton and Maxwell defined physics without needing a common reference frame. Any observer could use simple Euclidean geometry and that worked for most cases.
The geocentric celestial coordinate system worked for everyone because there was no attempt or need to describe a physical entity at a physical location in the universe to be observed by anyone in the universe.
Claiming the existence of black holes presents that need, but they don't exist.
Modern cosmology relies on the observer.Cosmology is also geocentric.
Relativity inserts an observer's frame of reference above the physical universe.
Without this intermediate geometry, mathematical abstractions like a black hole become impossible for the physical universe. The universe must be described by physics not defined by math.
Relativity with its spacetime is used as a means to first describe changes in an accelerating observer's reference frame. Spacetime does not apply in an inertial reference frame. Then modern cosmology applies spacetime to the universe assuming all observers can use that spacetime. They cannot. Spacetime is the observer's reference frame or relative to 'where he/she is starting from'. This is not a firm foundation for cosmology to describe the universe.
Modern cosmology will break when we try to describe the universe from a location beyond our solar system.
Last updated (08/16/2019)
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