Galaxy and Galaxy clusters are often observed to have clouds of gas or dust particles.
These observations accompany wrong assumptions.
Hot gas becomes ionized; ionized atoms are charged particles. Any collection of charged particles is called plasma.
quotes are from Wikipedia:
Plasma and ionized gases have properties and display behaviours unlike those of the other states [of matter].
A gas of ions cannot be treated as a gas of uncharged atoms.
Moving charges are called an electric current which generates a magnetic field.
Magnetic fields have been detected in intergalactic space.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles accelerating away from the Sun.
The solar wind and a galactic wind moving in a near vacuum of space cannot be treated as the flow of particles moving in Earth's atmosphere due to differences in air pressure.
A gas cannot emit white light or a broad spectrum. An atom of an element (in the gas) will emit a particular wavelength of light determined by the distance between those electron shells when dropping from a higher energy state to a lower energy state. A neon light is an example. In the spectrum of a star this observed wavelength is called an emission line.
Definition of a black-body:
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, emitted by a black body (an idealized opaque, non-reflective body). It has a specific spectrum and intensity that depends only on the body's temperature, which is assumed for the sake of calculations and theory to be uniform and constant.
The thermal radiation spontaneously emitted by many ordinary objects can be approximated as black-body radiation. A perfectly insulated enclosure that is in thermal equilibrium internally contains black-body radiation and will emit it through a hole made in its wall, provided the hole is small enough to have negligible effect upon the equilibrium.
There are mistakes when claiming an observed source of black-body radiation.
a) a gas, b) a cloud or ring of dust or particles, or c) a filament of plasma, or d) an accretion disk around an invisible black hole.
None of these qualify as a black body; that is an obvious mistake based on the definition.
A gas cannot generate thermal radiation when assumed to behave as a black body.Theoretically an extremely hot black-body could emit very short wavelengths. Claims extend to X-rays but the observed source must qualify as a black-body.
A bright source of electromagnetic radiation at the galactic scale is usually from synchrotron radiation, the result of an electric current bending in a magnetic field; it generates the broad spectrum from infrared to light, to X-ray, to gamma ray, with the intensity at certain wavelengths dependent on the strength of the electromagnetic fields.
Sandia National Laboratories (or LANL) developed the Z-pulsed Power Facility and its Z Machine to demonstrate this mechanism for X-rays.
There are incorrect claims of black-body radiation at the scale of galaxies where nothing is truly isolated and in thermal equilibrium.
Perhaps this topic should have been included in the new cosmology model topic post on June 26, to identify another fundamental error in trying to model the universe. X-ray sources and intergalactic currents were mentioned in that post.
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