Improbable Dark Matter
Because the predictions involved in a spiral galaxy are based on probabilities it is impossible to make precise predictions.
Therefore the justification for dark matter, using probabilities, is improbable.
Dark matter presumes we can make valid predictions to individual atoms using probabilities. That is simply wrong.
The 6 major problems:
1) A solar system model is used for a spiral galaxy.
The solar system has one huge mass and a number of smaller planets in elliptical orbits. All orbit around the barycenter with the Sun.
Their sizes and eccentricities vary.
There is no visible large mass at the center of a galaxy.
The galaxy has a magnetic field and each star is charged and has an electric field; these EM fields will result in forces on these charged objects. The gravitational forces will also have an effect on motions.
separate post 04/19-dark magnetic field
separate post 08/06-spiral arms
Every spiral galaxy appears to have an X-ray source but no visible object there.
separate post 07/18 -xray source
In the electric universe this is a source of synchrotron radiation, a broad spetrum of wavelengths generated by an electric current bending in a magnetic field. At the core of M87 galaxy a plasmoid was observed
At the core of the Milky Way galaxy is a Z-pinch of an observed pair of birkelund currents.
The usual claim is there is an invisible supermassive black hole having an indeterminate mass present at the galactic core with its accretion disk emitting thermal radiation extending to X-ray wavelengths. Such a claim has not been confirmed because the theoretical black hole has zero size, called a singularity, and a direct observation of this theoretical object is impossible.
2) The number of stars in the galaxy is an estimate.
separate post-06/16 - spiral galaxy
The number of neutral hydrogen (NH) atoms in the NH gas clouds is an estimate.
3) The current locations and orbits for all objects in the galaxy are uncertain.
4) Any orbit parameters cannot be confirmed at this scale.
Many measurements of the Sun's rotation relative to other stars resulted in the conclusion the orbit is roughly a circle and takes about 226 million years. It must take at least that long to confirm all the orbit parameters by the correct completion of one orbit.
5) The galaxy rotation is measured by relative velocities of NH atoms.
separate post 08/13- spiral rotation
6) some galaxies are known to have some NH clouds rotate in the opposite direction of the stars. M64 is an example.
The result of these 6 problems:
Nothing is known with certainty to predict motions in a spiral galaxy.
Therefore any model of a spiral galaxy must be based on probabilities.
A probability could describe for the motion of a cluster of stars or a cloud of NH.
Currently the rotation curve of a spiral galaxy is done with a number of individual NH atom emission lines. That observation includes nothing about any stars or clouds, of dust or gas, in the vicinity of each NH atom.
A precise prediction with a probability is impossible.
The simplest example:
It is impossible to predict every time the flip of a coin or the roll of a die.
Because the model is based on probabilities any predictions for individual atoms or stars cannot be certain.
Cosmologists assume they have this certainty.
When the prediction fails for a rotation curve, cosmologists claim invisible dark matter is the cause of the deviation. This is bad science.
Here is the Thunderbolts Project view on dark matter.
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Last updated (08/19/2019)
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