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Reformation of Cosmology Step 3

The reformation of modern cosmology will require many steps.
Step 1 was: Get rid of everything named dark and black.

Step 2 was: Update our understanding of the closest star: the Sun

Step 3 is update our understanding of galaxies and a galactic nuclei, sometimes called AGN.

Nearly every galaxy has an X-ray source at its core. This source is currently claimed to be a black hole with an accretion disk heated to many millions of degrees but this explanation is wrong.

a) Elliptical Galaxy

M87 and its core are now familiar to everyone interested in astronomy.
Its image in April was not an accretion disk but rather a torus. That image was a plasmoid not a black hole as claimed.

In youtube, search for "thornhill plasmoid"
This should find the video titled:
Wal Thornhill: Black Hole or Plasmoid?

This 15.5 minute video describes a plasmoid (a term coined in the 1950's) and how its torus explains the M87 observations including the superluminal jets ejected from the M87 nucleus.

The plasmoid is a source of synchrotron radiation, generated by an electric current bending by a magnetic field.
The minimum wavelength in the broad spectrum of synchrotron radiation is driven by the intensity of this electric current.

Excerpt from the  European Synchrotron Radiation Facility site ===
Synchrotron radiation was seen for the first time at General Electric in the United States in 1947 in a different type of particle accelerator (synchrotron). It was recognised in the 1960s as light with exceptional properties that overcame the shortcomings of X-ray tubes.

In the mid- to late 1970s, scientists began to discuss ideas for using synchrotrons to produce extremely bright X-rays.

The entire world of synchrotron science depends on one physical phenomenon: When a moving electron changes direction [by a magnetic field], it emits energy. When the electron is moving fast enough, the emitted energy is at X-ray wavelength.

my comment:
Synchrotron radiation is a proven mechanism used by every X-ray generating device.
The theoretical accretion disk mechanism has never been demonstated.

The stars in an elliptical galaxy have an orbit that is impossible with only gravity affecting stellar motion but requires a mix of electromagnetic forces. The stars have a linear orbit where they are alternately moving toward the core and moving away from the core while maintaining this motion in a line, called a radial motion, like along a radius of a circle. The attractive force of gravity cannot do that.

A globular cluster is essentially a small elliptical galaxy. Globular clusters have a plasmoid at their core, which may or may not be energetic enough for X-ray. Their stars have the similar radial motion while maintaining the same spherical shape.

b) Quasar

A quasar has a superluminal red shift because it has superluminal jets (like M87). A quasar also has a plasmoid at its nucleus.
The initial quasars in the 1960's were strong in visible light and in radio. That combination resulted in the name quasi-stellar object or quasar. Since then, quasars are also found with an X-ray source but with the light often dimmed by dust making them faint in visible light. They are claimed faint by extreme distance but that distance is wrong by interpreting the red shift wrong.
A more energetic electric current results in a higher peak frequency in the quasar's radiation.

c) Spiral Galaxy

A spiral galaxy has a different nucleus than an elliptical galaxy because the spiral galaxy has a rotating disk.

With a web search program, search for "Plasma Universe Creates Galaxies"
This should find the page titled:
How the Electric Plasma Universe Creates Galaxies and Stars

This page is hosted at the Science in Society site.

Anthony Peratt at Los Alamos National Laboratory explains how galaxies are created by galactic-scale field-aligned Birkelund currents.
The generation of strong synchrotron radiation occurs when these Birkelund currents are pinched by the magnetic field at the core.
All spiral galaxies have this pinched birkelund current at their core. The intensity of the radiation depends on the electric current.

The birkelund currents are along the axis of the spiral galaxy. The electric current generates a magnetic field. This magnetic field provides the Lorentz force which is tangential resulting in the rotation of the stars in the galactic disk perpendicular to the galactic current.

If a spiral galaxy has an X-ray point source at a great distance from the core that object is a plasmoid (not a black hole).

A spiral galaxy has no black holes and no dark matter.

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